Genus Hemerotrecha Banks 1903

Hemerotrecha Banks, 1903: 78,79; Comstock, 1913: 37-38; Roewer, 1934: 552, 577; Muma, 1951: 98-99; Muma, 1970a: 37; Muma, 1976: 20; Muma 1989: 3 (key), 18; Harvey 2003e: 249; Brookhart and Brookhart 2006: 301 (key) 319; Brookhart and Cushing 2008: 49, 50, fig. 1.



Type species:

Hemerotrecha banksi Muma, 1951


Diagnosis:

From Muma (1951): "Large- to small-sized Therobatinae. Fixed finger of male chelicera with a mesal or mesoventral groove. Flagellum complex composed of a dorsal row or group of simple tubular bristles, a mesal row or group of plumose bristles, and a ventral or basal row or group of simple tubular bristles. The plumose bristles partially or completely cover the mesoventral groove. First postspiracular abdominal sternite of males with ctenidia on its dorsal margin. Mesal tooth of movable finger of males and females present or absent. Opercula of females variable."


Original description:

Banks 1903: 78,79:

78, 79 - HEMEROTRECHA n. gen.

The male has an elongate flagellum consisting of two pieces lying along the inner side of
the upper finger ; upper finger ( of 6 ) without teeth ; lower finger (of ♂ ) with several
teeth on basal half ; front margin of cephalothorax truncate ; tarsi II. and III. of one
joint ; tarsus IV. of three joints, the middle one very short, all with large claws. Palpi
short and stout, a few spines below on tibia and metatarsus. There are no series of
spines above on metatarsi II. and III.

This genus differs from Ammotrecha by the truncate front margin of the head , by the untoothed upper finger of male mandibles, and by the very elongate flagellum. It differs from Gluvia in the shape and position of the flagellum. The three-jointed hind tarsi will separate it from Mummicia ( the male of which is unknown) .


Subsequent accounts:

Comstock 1913: 36 (key), 37, 38, fig. 39:

36 - Our known species represent three genera, which can be separated as follows:

A.  Anterior margin of the cephalothorax truncate.

    B. Hind tarsi consisting of a single segment.                    P. 36. Eremobates

    BB. Hind tarsi three-jointed.                                               P. 37. Hemerotrecha

AA. Anterior margin of the cephalothorax subconical.      p. 38. Ammotrecha

37, 38 - Genus HEMEROTRECHA (Hem-e-rot're-cha)

The members of this genus resemble Eremobates in having the cephalothorax truncate in front; but differ in having the hind tarsi three-jointed. The male has an elongated flagellum consisting of two pieces lying along the inner side of the upper finger (Fig. 39). The upper finger of the male is without teeth; but there are several teeth on the basal half of the lower finger. Only a single species has been described; this is Hemerotrecba californica. It was found near Pacific Grove, California. The male measures two fifths inch in length. The adult female is unknown as yet.


Roewer 1934: 552. 577:

552 - In der Diagnose der Eremobatinae wird chedem hervorgehoben, daß sie kein Flagellum besitzen. Nachdem wir (S. 136 u. 137) über die Mannigfaltigkeit der Ausbildung dieses Organes berichteten und von einem differenzierten Borstenbüschel des unbeweglichen Fingers als von einem ,.Flagellum-Komplex" sprechen mußten, aus dem sich einzelne oder gar nur eine Borste als eigentliches Flagellum herausbildete, läßt sich auch für die Eremobatidae ein solcher "Flagellum-Komplex" gut feststellen. Er besteht bei den meisten Arten aus gleichartigen, in einem Büschel medial und parallel des unbeweglichen Fingers nach vom gerichteten Borsten. Bei einigen Arten jedoch treten aus diesem Büschel auch schon weiterhin differenzierte Borsten hervor, wie wir S. 136 des Näheren darlegten, und die Übergänge zur Ausbildung des Flagellum bei den übrigen amerikanischen Solifugen zeigen konnten. Hier ist besonders die uns nicht zu Gesicht gekommene Gattung Hemerotrecha zu nennen, die ihr Autor (Banks, 1913) allerdings in nähere Beziehung zu den Ammotrechen zu setzen geneigt ist. Wir glauben aber zu Unrecht, denn, abgesehen davon, daß die Dreigliedrigkeit des 4. Tarsus auch für die Eremobatinae zutriift, ist der unbewegliche Finger des einzig bekannten ♂ der einzig bekannten Art von Hemerotrecha ganz wie bei den Eremobatinae und nicht wie bei den Ammotrechen ausgebildet. Sein Flagellum bildet deutlich den Abschluß der Entwicklung dieses Organes bei den Eremobatinae, hat allerdings entfernte Ähnlichkeit mit dem nur aus einer unbeweglichen Spelze bestehenden Flagellum der Ammotrechen. Leider ist die ventrale Bedornung des 2. -4. Tarsus von Hemerotrecha nicht bekannt, so daß wir diese Gattung nicht in unsere Gattungstabelle einsetzen, sondern sie nur anhangsweise aufführen können.

[English translation:

In the former diagnosis of the Eremobatinae, it was emphasized that they possess no flagellum. After we reported (pages 136 and 137) about the variaton in the structure of this organ and spoke of a varied tuft of bristles on the immovable finger as a "Flagellum-Komplex", which itself alone or even only one bristle is developed as an actual - flagellum, such a "Flagellum-Komplex" also is for the Eremobatidae well established. With some species, however, yet furthermore varied bristles also stand out from this tuft, as we discussed more closely on page 136, and the transitions to this structure of the flagellum by the remaining American Solifugae can be demonstrated. Here especially we cannot ignore the genus named Hemerotrecha, that their author (Banks, 1913) was indeed inclined to place into nearer relationship to the ammotrechids. Wrongly however, we believe, because, apart from this, the three-segmented-ness of the tarsus of leg IV also for the Eremobatinae applies, and the immovable finger of the only known male of the only known species of Hemerotrecha is completely like that of the Eremobatinae and is not developed like that of the Ammotrechidae. Its flagellum clearly forms the terminus of the gradation in the development of this organ within the Eremobatinae, and indeed has remote similarity to the flagellum of the ammotrechids, which consists only of an immovable husk. Unfortunately, the ventral spination of the tarsi of legs II-IV of Hemerotrecha is not known, so that we don't include this genus in our tabular key to genera, but can present it only as an appendix.

577 - Die Diagnose des Autors von Hemerotrecha mit der einen Art H. californica (Banks 1913 S. 79 u. 1904 S. 363), die wir den Eremobatidae zurechnen (vgl. S. 552), lautet:

3: Cheliceren dorsal und lateral mit zahlreichen, starken Dornen, Gebiß und Flagellum (Abb. 131); Pedipalpen kurz und stark, an Tibia und Metatarsus mit je 2.2 Dornen, am Metatarsus ohneventrale Scopula aus Papillen; Bedornung der Beine wird vom Autor nicht angegeben, Zahl der Glieder des 1.-4. Tarsus 1: 1 : 1: 3; Farbung weißgelb bis rostgelb, opisthosomale Tergite schwärzlich, Beine bis auf die basalen Glieder braun; Körperlänge?

nur 3 - Californien (Pacific Grove: im hellen Sonnenschein umherlaufend).

[English translation:

The diagnosis by the author of Hemerotrecha for the one species H. californica (Banks 1913 p. 79 and 1904 p. 363) that we add to the Eremobatidae (see p. 552), goes: Male: Chelicerae with numerous strong dorsal and lateral spines, dentition and flagellum as in fig. 131 ; pedipalp short and strong, tibia and metatarsus each with 2.2 spines, metatarsus without ventral scopula of papillae; spination of the legs not stated by the author, number of segments in the tarsi oflegs I-IV 1:1:1:3; coloration yellowish-white to rust-yellow, opisthosomal tergites blackish, legs up to basal segments brown; length?. Known only from male - California (Pacific Grove: running around in the bright sunshine).]


Muma 1951: 85 (key), 98, 99:

85 - "KEY TO GENERA

MALES

    1. Dorsal bristles of flagellum complex simple and tubular........................... Therobates

       Dorsal bristles of flagellum complex plumose, striate, or otherwise modified ..........2

    2. Fixed finger distinctly sinuate ........................................................................ Chanbria

       Fixed finger straight or at most weakly curved or undulate .................. Hemerotrecha

98, 99 - GENUS HEMEROTRECHA2 BANKS

Cleobis BANKS, 1899, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 4, p. 314. (Not Cleobis of authors.) Preoccupied.

Hemerotrecha BANKS, 1903, Ent. News, vol. 14, p. 78.

Eremochelis ROEWER, 1934, in Bronn, Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs, vol. 5, div. 4, book 4, p. 570 (in part).

Eremognatha ROEWER, 1934, in Bronn, op. cit., vol. 5, div. 4, book 4, p. 566 (in part).

Small- to moderate-sized Hemerobatinae. Males with fixed finger style-like, the lower edge of which is irregularly undulate or bears one or more modified teeth and with no, or at most a very faint, mesal groove.

Flagellum complex consisting of a dorsal row of striate bristles, the striae formed by very tiny setae and a ventral row of curved plumose setae which are more distinctly plumose towards the apical end of the finger.

Opercula of females variously developed.

GENOTYPE: Hemerotrecha banksi, new name.

2 Greek, hemera, day, plus trecho, to run; refers to diurnal habits.

KEY TO GROUPS

MALES

1. Eyes separated by one and one-half to two diameters ........................ banksi group

    Eyes separated by one or less than one diameter .................................................. 2

2. Striate bristles of flagellum complex all simple and tubular ................ texana group

    Some striate bristles of flagellum plumose and flattened.......................................3

3. Apical striate bristle of flagellum complex flattened ........................... serrata group

    Apical striate bristle of flagellum complex not flattened ................... branchi group

 

Muma 1970a: 3 (key), 37:

   3 - Key to Subfamilies and Genera of Eremobatidae

(MALES AND FEMALES)

    1.  Leg I with 1 claw; large, robust, short legged species .............Eremobatinae Roewer - 2

         Leg I with 2 claws; small, slender, long legged species ................Therobatinae Muma-5

    2.  Palpus with 2 ventral rows of long, robust, spinelike, erectile and deflectile setae on
        femur, tibia, metatarsus, and tarsus ...................................................Horribates Muma

         Palpus with or without spinelike setae; when present, apparently not movable
        and not on metatarsus and tarsus ................................................................................ 3

(MALES ONLY)

    3.  Fixed finger short and dorsally lobate or sculptured .................... Eremothera Muma

         Fixed finger elongate and needlelike or stylelike ....................................................... 4

    4.  Mesoventral groove of fixed finger extending to base of finger; apical seta of
        flagellum-complex flattened and plumose .................................... Eremobates Banks

         Mesoventral groove of fixed finger not extending to base of finger; apical seta of
        flagellum-complex tubular, at most striate....................................Eremorhax Roewer

    5.  Dorsal setae of flagellum complex simple and tubular.................Eremochelis Roewer

         Dorsal setae of flagellum-complex striate, plumose, spatulate, or otherwise
        modified ....................................................................................................................6

    6.  Fixed finger distinctly sinuate, bent upward and bent or curved downward; dorsal
        setae plumose.....................................................................................Chanbria Muma

         Fixed finger straight, weakly curved, undulate or bent downward at tip; dorsal setae
        striate, spatulate or hooked .......................................................Hemerotrecha Banks

   37 - Genus Hemerotrecha Banks

Cleobis Banks, 1899, p. 314 (preoccupied).

Hemerotrecha Banks, 1934, p. 78.

Eremognatha Roewer, 1934, p. 566 (in part).

Hemerotrecha Banks, Muma, 1961, p. 98.

    KEY TO SPECIES-GROUPS

    (MALES)

    1.  Eyes separated by 1-1/2-2 diameters .....................................................banksi group

          Eyes separated by 1 or less than 1 diameter ............................................................2

    2. Striate bristles of flagellum complex setiform ........................................ texana group

          Some striate bristles of flagellum complex flattened or plumose.............................3

    3. Apical striate bristle of flagellum complex flattened and spatulate .......serrata group

        Apical striate bristle of flagellum complex tubular, blunt tipped, and hooked .........
        ...............................................................................................................branchi group


Muma 1976: 20:

3 -     Genus Hemerotrecha Banks, 1903.

Genus Hemerotrecha Banks, 1903.

Altogether 21 names have been applied to species presently recognized as belonging in this genus, all apparently are valid. Muma (1951, 1962 and 1970) recognized three species groups within the genus.


Muma 1989: 3 (key), 35:

3 -     Key to Subfamilies and Genera of Eremobatidae

  (Males Only)

1. Leg 1 with 1 claw; chelicerae about twice as long as wide; small to large species ...............
   ........................................................................................................Eremobatinae Roewer-2

1'. Leg 1 with 2 claws; chelicerae 2.5–3 times longer than wide; tiny to moderate sized
   species ......................................................................................................... Therobatinae-6

2. Fixed cheliceral finger long, style-like or needle-like; mesoventral groove a crease, slot or
   cup-like structure; moderate-sized to large species .......................................................... 3

2'. Fixed cheliceral finger short, sculptured and flanged; mesoventral groove a trough-like
    slot; moderate sized species ................................................................ Eremothera Muma

3. Mesoventral groove an indistinct hollow or crease that does not extend to the base of
    the fixed finger; movable finger dentition greatly reduced ................................................
   ....................................................................................... Arenotherus Brookhart and Muma

3'. Mesoventral groove a distinct crease, cup, or slot that may or may not extend to base of
   fixed finger; movable finger dentition normal or increased .............................................. 4

4. Mesoventral groove short, not extending to base of fixed finger; apical striate or
   plumose setae of male flagellum complex not obviously modified or flattened .............. 5

4'. Mesoventral groove long, extending to base of fixed finger; apical plumose seta of male
   flagellum complex obviously enlarged or flattened covering part of the mesoventral
   groove..................................................................................................... Eremobates Banks

5'. Palpal metatarsus, tibia, and femur provided with 2 ventral rows of enlarged, robust,
    spine-like, obviously movable setae ....................................................... Horribates Muma

6. Fixed cheliceral finger strongly recurved, sigmoid, or S-shaped; mesoventral groove
    absent; both dorsal and ventral flagellum complex setae plumose, moderate sized
    species........................................................................................................Chanbria Muma

6'. Fixed cheliceral finger style-like or needle-like, straight, curved, or undulate but not
    S-shaped or sigmoid; mesoventral groove present; dorsal flagellum complex setae
    striate, ventral setae striate or plumose ......................................................................... 7

7. Fixed cheliceral finger with a mesoventral groove that varies from one or more indistinct
    creases to an elongate hollow or cup; small to moderate sized species ............................
   ............................................................................................................. Eremochelis Roewer

7'. Fixed cheliceral finger without a mesoventral groove; tiny to small species ......................
    ............................................................................................................ Hemerotrecha Banks

35 -   Genus Hemerotrecha Banks, 1903

Tiny to medium sized Therobatinae . Fixed cheliceral finger of males essentially straight, although it may be denticulate, undulate or serrate, and completelly lacks a mesal or mesoventral groove.  Dorsal setae of flagellum complex weakly to strongly striate; ventral setae weakly to strongly plumose . Apical striate seta and sometimes sub-apical striate seta frequently strong. enlarged, flattened or hooked; apical plumose seta may or may not be modified. Female opercular form variable within genus but may be consistent within species groups .

Key to species groups of Hemerotrecha Banks

(Males)

1.  Fixed cheliceral finger without teeth, denticules or indication of such on ventral surface .... 2

2. Fixed cheliceral finger abruptly narrowed or truncated at apex; apical and sub-apical striate
   setae of flagellum complex broad, flat and spatulate ........................................... banksi group

2'. Fixed cheliceral finger gradually tapered from base to tip; apical and sub-apical striate setae
    of flagellum complex strong but not modified ........................................................................ 3

3. Fixed cheliceral finger curved upward and serrate dorsally; apical striate setae of flagellum
   complex strongly curved and tubular .................................................................. serrata group

3'. Fixed cheliceral finger essentially straight and smooth dorsally; apical striate setae of
   flagellum complex distinctly to indistinctly striate ..............................................simplex group

4. Apical and sub-apical striate setae and sometimes apical plumose seta strongly flattened,
   hooked, or flattened and hooked; fixed cheliceral finger provided with modified but
   recognizable teeth .............................................................................................. branchi group

4'. Apical and sub-apical striate and plumose setae not modified but sometimes weakly striate
   or plumose; fixed cheliceral finger undulate or dentate ......................................................... 5

5.  Fixed cheliceral finger undulate ventrally; mesal surface with an indistinct apical hollow ...
    ............................................................................................................................ texana group

5'. Fixed cheliceral finger provided with nearly normal or female -like dentition; mesal surface
    without a definable crease or hollow ......................................................... denticulata group


Harvey, 2003e: 249:

  249 - Genus Hemerotrecha Banks

Hemerotrecha Banks, 1903: 78-79; Comstock, 1913: 37-38; Roewer, 1934: 577; Muma, 1951: 98-99; Muma, 1970a: 37; Muma, 1976: 20; Muma, 1989: 35. 252.

Type species: Hemerotrecha californica Banks, 1903 (junior secondary homonym of Cleobis californica Banks, 1899; now Hemerotrecha banksi Muma, 1951), by monotypy

Distribution: North America.


Brookhart and Brookhart 2006: 301 (key) 319:

301 -    Key to Subfamilies and Genera of Eremobatidae (males only)

(Taken from Muma 1987)

1. Leg I with 1 claw; chelicerae about twice as long as wide; small to large species .....................
   .............................................................................................................Eremobatinae Roewer-2

   Leg 1 with 2 claws; chelicerae 2.5–3 times longer than wide; tiny to moderate sized species ...
   ........................................................................................................................... Therobatinae-6

2. Fixed cheliceral finger long, style-like or needle-like; mesoventral groove a crease, slot or
   cup-like structure; moderate-sized to large species ................................................................ 3

    Fixed cheliceral finger short, sculptured and flanged; mesoventral groove a trough-like slot;
   moderate sized species .......................................................................................... Eremothera

3. Mesoventral groove an indistinct hollow or crease that does not extend to the base of the
   fixed finger; anterior tooth absent .......................................................................... Eremorhax

    Mesoventral groove a distinct crease, cup, or slot that may or may not extend to base of
   fixed finger; anterior tooth present ......................................................................................... 4

4. Mesoventral groove short, not extending to base of fixed finger; apical striate or plumose
   setae of male flagellum complex not obviously modified or flattened ................................... 5

    Mesoventral groove long, extending to base of fixed finger; apical plumose seta of male
   flagellum complex obviously enlarged or flattened; covering part of the mesoventral groove
   ................................................................................................................................. Eremobates

5. Palpal metatarsus, tibia, and femur provided with enlarged spine-like seta, but not robust,
   not aligned in a ventral row, not movable .............................................................. Eremocosta

    Palpal metatarsus, tibia, and femur provided ventrally with robust, obviously movable
   spinelike setae .......................................................................................................... Horribates

6. Fixed cheliceral finger strongly recurved, sigmoid, or S-shaped; mesoventral groove absent;
    both dorsal and ventral flagellum complex setae plumose, moderate sized species ..............
   .....................................................................................................................................Chanbria

    Fixed cheliceral finger style-like or needle-like, straight, curved, or undulate but not
   S-shaped or sigmoid; mesoventral groove present; dorsal flagellum complex setae striate,
   ventral setae striate or plumose ............................................................................................. 7

7. Fixed cheliceral finger with a mesoventral groove that may vary from a distinct crease to
   an elongate hollow or cup; dorsal flagellum complex simple or tubular; small to moderate
   sized species ........................................................................................................... Eremochelis

   Fixed cheliceral finger without a mesoventral groove; dorsal flagellum complex hooked or
   spatulate; tiny to small species ........................................................................... Hemerotrecha

319 - Genus Hemerotrecha Banks 1903

Hemerotrecha Banks 1903:78.

Eremochelis Roewer 1934: 570 (in part).

Eremognatha Roewer 1934: 566 (in part).


Brookhart and Cushing 2008: 49, 50, fig. 1:

49 -    The Greek Hemerous, the sun, and trechos, to run, were used by Banks (1903) to erect the genus Hemerotrecha. He designated Hemerotrecha californica Banks 1903 as the type species. The collector, Dr. Harold Heath, said, ‘‘they run about in the blazing hot sunshine’’ (Banks 1903). The genus Hemerotrecha currently includes 31 species from western United States and northern Mexico (Harvey 2003). As defined by Muma (1951, 1970), the genus Hemerotrecha includes small to moderate-sized solifuges bearing a style-like fixed cheliceral finger with the ventral edge irregularly undulate or bearing one or more modified teeth. The mesoventral groove is absent or, at most, very faint. The flagellum complex consists of a dorsal row of striate bristles, the striae formed by very tiny setae, and a ventral row of plumose setae that are more plumose apically
(Fig. 1).

50 -    Family Eremobatidae Kraepelin 1901

Subfamily Therobatinae Muma 1951

Genus Hemerotrecha Banks 1903

Type species.Hemerotrecha californica Banks 1903 (junior secondary homonym of Cleobis californica Banks 1899, now Hemerotrecha banksi Muma 1951), by monotypy. Remarks.—Muma (1951) placed the genus Hemerotrecha in the Therobatinae based on the style-like fixed cheliceral finger, undulate ventrally or with small modified denticles, none, or, at best, a very faint mesal ventral groove, and the female operculum variously developed. He later modified his description of the genus Hemerotrecha (Muma 1970) by describing the fixed cheliceral finger as weakly curved, undulate, or turned downward at the tip, and the dorsal flagellar setae as striate, spatulate, or hooked. Muma (1989) refined his description of the fixed finger as essentially straight but at times being denticulate, undulate, or serrate and completely lacking a mesal or mesoventral groove, the flagellar setae additionally to include ‘‘strong, enlarged, flattened, or hooked’’ setae, and the female opercula being variable but consistent within species groups.



Notes:



Included taxa


  • banksi group
  • Hemerotrecha banksi Muma, 1951
  • Hemerotrecha californica (Banks), 1899
  • Hemerotrecha marginata (Kraepelin), 1901
  • Hemerotrecha serrata Muma, 1951
  • branchi group
  • Hemerotrecha bixleri Muma 1989
  • Hemerotrecha branchi Muma 1951
  • Hemerotrecha cazieri Muma 1986
  • Hemerotrecha cornuta Brookhart & Cushing 2002
  • Hemerotrecha macra Muma 1951
  • Hemerotrecha milsteadi Muma 1962
  • Hemerotrecha minima Muma 1951
  • Hemerotrecha sevilleta Brookhart & Cushing 2002
  • Hemerotrecha xena Muma 1951
  • denticulata group
  • Hemerotrecha carsonana Muma 1989
  • Hemerotrecha delicatula Muma 1989
  • Hemerotrecha denticulata Muma 1951
  • Hemerotrecha neotena Muma 1989
  • Hemerotrecha parva Muma 1989
  • Hemerotrecha proxima Muma 1963
  • serrata group
  • Hemerotrecha serrata Muma 1951
  • simplex group
  • Hemerotrecha fruitana Muma 1951
  • Hemerotrecha jacinotoana Muma 1962
  • Hemerotrecha maricopana Muma 1989
  • Hemerotrecha nevadensis Muma 1951
  • Hemerotrecha simplex Muma 1951
  • Hemerotrecha steckleri Muma 1951
  • Hemerotrecha texana Muma 1951
  • Hemerotrecha werneri Muma 1951
  • texana group

Bibliography: