Subfamily Therobatinae Muma 1951

Therobatinae Muma, 1951: 85; Muma, 1970a: 30; Muma, 1976: 18;Muma, 1989:17-18; Harvey 2003e: 248.

 



Diagnosis:

Therobatine solpugids bear two minute claws on the tip of the first leg. Most solpugids, and indeed, most arachnids, bear two claws on the tarsus of the first leg, so this feature does not represent a uniquely inherited condition. In fact, no shared derived feature unifies the group, which may represent an artificial assemblage of unrelated species. More research is needed if we are to understand the evolutionary relationships of the various members of the Therobatinae. Three genera are currently recognized: Chanbria (4 species), Eremochelis (36 species), and Hemerotrecha (31 species).




Original description:

Muma, 1951: 41 (key), 85:

41 -     KEY TO SUBFAMILIES

    One claw on first leg ........................................................................................ Eremobatinae

    Two claws on first leg ....................................................................................... Therobatinae

85 - THEROBATINAE, NEW SUBFAMILY

Eremobatidae with two claws on the tarsus of the first leg and with chelicerae from two and one-half to three times as long as wide. Fixed finger of male chelicera stylelike, with or without a ventral or mesoventral groove and with or without modified teeth. Males usually with ctenidia on sternite of first post-spiracular segment of abdomen.

KEY TO GENERA

MALES

    1. Dorsal bristles of flagellum complex simple and tubular................................. Therobates

        Dorsal bristles of flagellum complex plumose, striate, or otherwise modified................ 2

   2. Fixed finger distinctly sinuate .............................................................................. Chanbria

       Fixed finger straight or at most weakly curved or undulate ........................ Hemerotrecha

 

Subsequent accounts:

Muma 1970a: 3-4 (key), 30:

3,4 -   KEY TO SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF EREMOBATIDAE
(MALES AND FEMALES)

1. Leg I with 1 claw; large, robust, short legged species ...................... Eremobatinae Roewer-2

    Leg I with 2 claws; small, slender, long legged species ....................... Therobatinae Muma-5

2. Palpus with 2 ventral rows of long, robust, spinelike, erectile and deflectile setae on femur,
   tibia, metatarsus, and tarsus ...................................................................... Horribates Muma

    Palpus with or without spinelike setae; when present, apparently not movable and not on
   metatarsus and tarsus .......................................................................................................... 3

(MALES ONLY)

3. Fixed finger short and dorsally lobate or sculptured ................................ Eremothera Muma

    Fixed finger elongate and need1elike or stylelike ................................................................ 4

4. Mesoventral groove of fixed finger extending to base of finger; apical seta of flagellum-
  complex flattened and plumose ................................................................ Eremobates Banks

    Mesoventral groove of fixed finger not extending to base of finger; apical seta of flagellum-
  complex tubular, at most striate ............................................................... Eremorhax Roewer

5. Dorsal setae of flagellum complex simple and tubular ........................... Eremochelis Roewer

    Dorsal setae of flagellum-complex striate, plumose, spatulate, or otherwise modified .......
   ............................................................................................................................................... 6

6. Fixed finger distinctly sinuate, bent upward and bent or curved downward; dorsal setae
  plumose ......................................................................................................... Chanbria Muma

    Fixed finger straight, weakly curved, undulate, or bent downward at tip; dorsal setae striate,
   spatulate or hooked ............................................................................... Hemerotrecha Banks

30 -     SUBFAMILY THEROBATINAE MUMA, 1951

Therobatinae Muma, 1951, p. 85.

 

Muma 1976: 18:

18 - Subfamily Therobatinae Muma, 1951

This subfamily is based on Therobates Muma, 1951, which was synonymized with Eremochelis Roewer, 1934 by Muma (1970). Three genera of this subfamily are presently recognized. Chanbria Muma, Eremochelis Roewer and Hemerotrecha Banks. To date, these genera have not been found outside of North America.

 

Muma 1989: 3-4 (key), 17,18:

3, 4 -    Key to Subfamilies and Genera of Eremobatidae

(Males Only)

1. Leg 1 with 1 claw; chelicerae about twice as long as wide; small to large species ...............
   ........................................................................................................Eremobatinae Roewer-2

1'. Leg 1 with 2 claws; chelicerae 2.5–3 times longer than wide; tiny to moderate sized
   species ......................................................................................................... Therobatinae-6

2. Fixed cheliceral finger long, style-like or needle-like; mesoventral groove a crease, slot or
   cup-like structure; moderate-sized to large species .......................................................... 3

2'. Fixed cheliceral finger short, sculptured and flanged; mesoventral groove a trough-like
    slot; moderate sized species ................................................................ Eremothera Muma

3. Mesoventral groove an indistinct hollow or crease that does not extend to the base of
    the fixed finger; movable finger dentition greatly reduced ................................................
   ....................................................................................... Arenotherus Brookhart and Muma

3'. Mesoventral groove a distinct crease, cup, or slot that may or may not extend to base of
   fixed finger; movable finger dentition normal or increased .............................................. 4

4. Mesoventral groove short, not extending to base of fixed finger; apical striate or
   plumose setae of male flagellum complex not obviously modified or flattened .............. 5

4'. Mesoventral groove long, extending to base of fixed finger; apical plumose seta of male
   flagellum complex obviously enlarged or flattened covering part of the mesoventral
   groove..................................................................................................... Eremobates Banks

5'. Palpal metatarsus, tibia, and femur provided with 2 ventral rows of enlarged, robust,
    spine-like, obviously movable setae ....................................................... Horribates Muma

6. Fixed cheliceral finger strongly recurved, sigmoid, or S-shaped; mesoventral groove
    absent; both dorsal and ventral flagellum complex setae plumose, moderate sized
    species........................................................................................................Chanbria Muma

6'. Fixed cheliceral finger style-like or needle-like, straight, curved, or undulate but not
    S-shaped or sigmoid; mesoventral groove present; dorsal flagellum complex setae
    striate, ventral setae striate or plumose ......................................................................... 7

7. Fixed cheliceral finger with a mesoventral groove that varies from one or more indistinct
    creases to an elongate hollow or cup; small to moderate sized species ............................
   ............................................................................................................. Eremochelis Roewer

7'. Fixed cheliceral finger without a mesoventral groove; tiny to small species ......................
    ............................................................................................................ Hemerotrecha Banks

17,18 - Subfamily Therobatinae Muma, 1951

Males and females of subfamily have 2 claws on tarsus of leg 1. Two exceptions are Eremochelis plicatus Muma which apparently has none, and Eremobates vallis new species, described above, which sometimes also has 2 claws. These claws are very difficult to see on small dark species where they are sometimes easier to view in profile. Except for species of Chanbria Muma and Eremochelis simplex group, these species are small to moderate in size and frequently well marked with dusky to dark coloration. Most species also have chelicerae 2.5 to 3 times as long as wide.

Fewer specimens of this subfamily are available for study than of the subfamily Eremobatinae. This may be the result of their lesser abundance, smaller size, or perhaps cryptic habits. Because of this scarcity of material, many species have been described on the basis of a single sex and have been placed in the wrong genus or species group. Recent material has prompted study and reorganization of species, species groups, and genera. As a result many specimens and species have been relocated. These are listed and discussed within the relevant paragraphs. The key to subfamilies and genera of Eremobatidae (page 3) will distinguish genera of Therobatinae .

 

Harvey 2003e: 248:

248 -   Subfamily THEROBATINAE Muma

Therobatinae Muma, 1951: 85; Muma, 1970a: 30; Muma, 1976: 18;Muma, 1989:17-18.


Bibliography:


  • HARVEY, M.S. (2003e). Catalogue of the Smaller Arachnid Orders of the World. Csiro Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia. 385 pp.
  •  
  • MUMA, M.H. (1951) The arachnid order Solpugida in the United States. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 97, 35–141. http://hdl.handle.net/2246/1208
  •  
  • MUMA, M. H. 1970a. A synoptic review of North American, Central American, and West Indian Solpugida (Arthropoda, Arachnida). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, 5: 1- 62.
  •  
  • MUMA, M. H. 1976. A review of solpugid families with an annotated list of western hemisphere solpugids. Publications of the Office of Resesearch, Western New Mexico University, 2 (1): 1-33.
  •  
  • MUMA, M. H. 1989. New species and records of Solpugida (Arachnida) from the United States. 60 pp. Privately published for the author by Douglas Print Shop, Douglas, Arizona.
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