Genus Eremorhax Roewer 1934

Eremorhax Roewer 1934: 553, 554 (figures 319 a, b); Muma 1951: 41–43; Muma 1970a: 3 (key), 4; Muma 1976: 14; Harvey 2001: 198–199; Harvey 2002a: 450, 451; Harvey 2003e: 247; Brookhart and Brookhart 2006: 301.

Arenotherus Brookhart and Muma 1987:1, 3; Muma 1989: 4 (synonymized by Harvey 2002a: 451).


Female Eremorhax sp. from Cochise County, AZ. Photo by Wyatt Mendez, University of Arizona.


Type species:

of Eremorhax: Datames magna Hancock 1888 by original designation.

of Arenotherus: Datames magna Hancock 1888 by subsequent designation of Harvey, 2002: 450.


Diagnosis:

Eremobatine species in which the fixed cheliceral finger of the male bears a weak crease (as opposed to a distinct groove) on its mesal margin and lacks an apical-ventral cup. Setae of the flagellar complex simple and tubular.  Short-legged species.


Original description:

Roewer 1934: 553:

553 -"1. Gen. Eremorhax nov. gen.

Genotypus: E. magnus (Hancock).

Lit.: Hancock 1888 S. 107 (sub Datames); Kraepelin 1901 S. 127 (sub Eremobates part.).

Eremorhaxinae, deren 2. und 3. Tarsus ventral mit jeweils 4.6 Dornen und deren 4. Tarsus ventral mit 2.2.2.4.6 Dornen bewehrt ist (Abb. 319, a, b).

Nur 1 Art:

1. Eremorhax magnus Hancock 1888 S. 107 (sub Datames m.); Kraepelin 1901 S. 127 (sub Eremobates m.).

Gebiß und Flagellumkomplex des ♂ Abb. 126 und 319 c, Gebiß des ♀ Abb. 319, i; Pedipalpen des ♂ am Femur mit 5 medial-apikalen Dornborsten, an der Tibia in der Endhälfte mit 5 Dornborstenpaaren, am unbewehrten Metatarsus und Tarsus ventral mit Zylinderborsten; Pedipalpen des ♀ unbewehrt, Metatarsus und Tarsus rings (also auch dorsal) mit dichten Zylinderborsten (Abb. 319, d, k). - 1.-3. Coxa des ♂ und ♀ dicht mit roten Bacilli bestanden, Coxa der Pedipalpen und des 4. Beines frei davon und nur behaart; Sternithälften des Genitalsegmentes des ♀ (sieheAbb. 324, a) - Beine des ♂ und ♀ gleichartig ausgebildet und bedornt: 1. Bein völlig unbewehrt und am Tarsus ohne Spur von Endkrallen; 2. Bein an der Tibia mit 1 dorsalapikalen Dorn, am Metatarsus dorsal mit 5 Dornen der Haupt- und 3 Dornen der Nebenreihe, ventral mit 1.1.2 Dornborsten; 3. Bein wie das 2. Bein bewehrt, doch Tibia dorsal-apikal mit 3 Dornen und Metatarsus ventral mit 1.1.4 Dornborsten; 4. Bein dorsal unbewehrt, Tibia ventral mit 1.1 und Metatarsus ventral mit 2.2.2 Dornborsten; Bedornung des 2.-4. Tarsus siehe Diagnose der Subfamilie (Abb. 319, a, b, f, g, h). - Fürbung rostgelb bis blaßgelb; gebräunt ist nur das Ende der Pedipalpen mit der Endhälfte des Metatarsus und des ganzen Tarsus; Opisthosoma dorsal nur mit Andeutung einer dunklen Mittelbinde; Malleoli blaß und einfarbig; Körperlänge 35 (♂) bis 40 (♀) mm.

Uns liegt auch das bisher unbekannte ♀ dieser Art in mehreren Exemplaren vor. ♂, ♀ - Texas (Laredo usw.) - (vidi 2 ♂, 3 ♀, non Typus).



Subsequent accounts:

Muma 1951: 41-43:

41-43 - KEY TO GENERA

   MALES

 1.   Fixed finger of chelicera style-like ...............................................................................2

       Fixed finger sculptured, not style-like ........................................................ Eremothera

 2.   Mesoventral groove of fixed finger extending to base of finger, small to moderate-
      sized species ............................................................................................... Eremobates

       Mesoventral groove of fixed finger not extending to base of finger, large species ...
      ...................................................................................................................... Eremorhax

GENUS EREMORHAX1 ROEWER, 1934

Eremorhax ROEWER, 1934, in Bronn, Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs, vol. 5, div. 4, book 4, p. 553.

Eremopus ROEWER, 1934, in Bronn, op. cit., vol. 5, div. 4, book 4, p. 561 (in part).

Eremocosta ROEWER, 1934, in Bronn, op. cit., vol. 5, div. 4, book 4, p. 569 (in part, genotype only).

"Large Eremobatinae. Fixed finger of males with an apical, mesoventral groove that does not extend the length of the finger. Flagellum complex composed entirely of simple tubular bristles that may sometimes be striate. Mesal tooth of movable finger of both males and females distinct. First post-spiracular abdominal sternite of males usually without ctenidia on its posterior margin. Genital opercula of females adjacent at anterior end and widely divergent at posterior end.

GENOTYPE: Eremorhax magnus (Hancock).

1 Greek, eremos, solitary, plus rhax, a venomous spider.

KEY TO GROUPS

MALES

    Fixed finger weakly creased or hollowed mesoventrally .......................magnus group

    Fixed finger distinctly grooved mesoventrally ....................................... striatus group

Magnus GROUP

Males of this group are characterized by indistinct mesoventral grooving of the fixed finger and very tiny anterior and intermediate teeth of the movable finger. Females have a deep oval pit on each genital operculum. Fixed finger of female chelicerae with only one intermediate tooth between the principal and medial teeth, one in front of the medial tooth, and no anterior tooth. Both sexes have a distinct mesal tooth of the movable finger that is visible over the posterior margin of the principal tooth from a lateral view. Both rows of fondal teeth graded in size I, III, II, IV.

TYPICAL SPECIES: Eremorhax magnus (Hancock).


Muma 1970a: 3 (key), 4:

   3  -     KEY TO SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF EREMOBATIDAE
 (MALES AND FEMALES)

1. Leg I with 1 claw; large, robust, short legged species .............. Eremobatinae Roewer-2

    Leg I with 2 claws; small, slender, long legged species ................ Therobatinae Muma-5

2. Palpus with 2 ventral rows of long, robust, spinelike, erectile and deflectile setae on
   femur, tibia, metatarsus, and tarsus ................................................... Horribates Muma

   Palpus with or without spinelike setae; when present, apparently not movable and not
  on metatarsus and tarsus .............................................................................................. 3

  (MALES ONLY)

3. Fixed finger short and dorsally lobate or sculptured ........................ Eremothera Muma

    Fixed finger elongate and need1elike or stylelike ......................................................... 4

4. Mesoventral groove of fixed finger extending to base of finger; apical seta of
   flagellum complex flattened and plumose ....................................... Eremobates Banks

    Mesoventral groove of fixed finger not extending to base of finger; apical seta of
  flagellum-complex tubular, at most striate ....................................... Eremorhax Roewer

5. Dorsal setae of flagellum complex simple and tubular ................... Eremochelis Roewer

    Dorsal setae of flagellum-complex striate, plumose, spatulate, or otherwise modified
    ....................................................................................................................................... 6

6. Fixed finger distinctly sinuate, bent upward and bent or curved downward; dorsal
     setae plumose ...................................................................................... Chanbria Muma

 4 - Genus Eremorhax Roewer 1934

Eremorhax Roewer, 1934, p. 553.

Eremopus Roewer, 1934, p. 561 (in part).

Eremocosta Roewer, 1934, p. 561 (in part).

Eremorhax Roewer, Muma, 1951, p. 41

KEY TO SPECIES GROUPS

(MALES)

1. Abdominal ctenidia present; movable finger with normal principal, intermediate, and
   anterior teeth .................................................................................... montezuma group

   Abdominal ctenidia absent; movable finger with abnormally fewer or more teeth and
   processes ....................................................................................................................... 2

2. Fixed finger weakly creased or hollowed mesoventrally; movable finger lacking
    anterior tooth ......................................................................................... magnus group

    Fixed finger distinctly grooved or hollowed mesoventrally; movable finger with extra
   process in front of anterior tooth ............................................................. striatus group


Muma 1976: 14:

14 -   "Genus Eremorhax Roewer, 1934

Although 17 names have been applied to species presently recognized as members of this genus, only 13 are considered valid. Three species-groups were recognized by Muma (1970)."


Brookhart and Muma 1987: 1, 3:

1 -     INTRODUCTION

"The genus Eremorhax was erected by Roewer (1934) to include his designated type species Datames magna Hancock and related forms. Roewer stated that he had not seen the type when he described the genus, and examination of his drawings, 126, 319c, 319i, and 324a, indicate that his specimens were also not magnus. His (1934) drawings of the male chelicerae show no tiny to small teeth distal of the principal tooth on the movable finger; two small but distinct teeth are always present on magnus. His drawings of the female chelicerae do not show the normal reduced dentition of the fixed finger, nor the reduced size of the intermediate and anterior teeth of the movable finger. Further, his drawings of the female opercula fail to illustrate the highly visible anterio-ectal pits that seem to invade the lateral margins of the opercula. Although color and color patterns are often suspect as diagnostic characters, it may also be noted that Roewer (1934) in his description of his "magnus" stated that the pedipalpi (palpi) were browned only on the apical half of the metatarsi and tarsi; the magnus of Hancock (1888), Muma (1951 and 1970), and here is dusky purple on the tarsus, metatarsus, and apical end of the tibia of the palpus.

On the bases of these findings, it is apparent that the genus Eremorhax Roewer is a junior synonym of Eremobates Banks. Arenotherus new genus is here erected to include the species previously placed in the magnus group of Eremorhax. Further, this new genus is divided into two species groups, the magnus complex and the pulcher complex.

The ECCS of Muma ( 1985) are included here for both males and females as a matter of record. T hey need to be further studied, and to be validated before they can be utilized effectively.

Eremorhax formidabilis Simon is removed from the magnus complex and tentatively placed in the presently recognized Eremorhax striatus (Putnam) species-group because of the placement ancl form of the mesoventral groove. Examination of Eremorhax nigrimanus Pocock indicates that it too should probably be placed in the striatus species-group. Eremopus mexicanus Roewer, female type has opercula uncharacteristic of this group and may be an immature female. Until more specimens from Mexico are collected, these problems will remain unsolved.

Collections of this genus by pitfall or around light indicate that magnus complex is less numerous than pulcher complex and is generally associated with gravel ridges. The magnus complex appears to be Chihuahuan in origin extending from Mexico up the front range of the Rocky Mountains into Colorado, New Mexico, and eastern and northern Arizona. The pulcher complex is found in the Sonoran desert regions of Mexico and extends into western Arizona, the Great Basin regions of Nevada, the Mojave Desert, and between the Coastal Ranges of California. It is much more common in collections, which probably indicates a greater mobility than the magnus complex. The greater length of appendages also substantiates this conclusion.

3 -     Arenotherus new genus

Males with mesoventral groove narrow to wide, indistinct to distinct, but shallow, and extending to or below the origin of the flagellar setal complex of the fi xed finger when it is viewed meso-anteriorly. Flagellar complex with no specialized setae, composed of tubu lar to slightly striate setae dorsally, and slightly striate setae ventrally. Setae of the fondal notch and movable finger composed of a row of reddish tubtdar setae ventrally and plumose setae as an underlying row in the fondal notch, fand , and basal end of the movable finger setal articula tion area. Males without a scopula of papillae on the tarsus and metatarsus of the palpus, a nd without ctenidia on the first post-spiracular sternite. Fixed finger without teeth or modified teeth. Fondal teeth graded I, III, II , IV. Fondal tooth IV often indistinguishable. Movable finger of males and females with a !a rge principal tooth; on males at most a ridge with or without tiny to small abortive teeth anteriorly; on females, a small anterior tooth and smaller intermediate tooth. Mesal tooth generally distinct and often forming a cup-iike structure when viewed anterio-dorsally. Females with o nly three teeth anterior to the principal tooth of the fixed finger. Genital opercula with pits ranging from distinct to tiny, lateral and or anterior to or on the sclerotized portion of the opercula .

Magnus complex

Males small to !arge (17-42 mm.) in size. Generally short legged as indicated by an A/CP ratio va rying from 3.2 to 5.9 Colaration dusky red brown to cream. Teeth absent on fixed finger. Movable finger with a ridge and occasionally small teeth anterior to the !arge principal tooth. Width of base of fixed finger equal to or smaller than width of fondal notch. Movable finger sinuate in ventral view (Fig. 3). Mesoventral groove distinct (Fig. 2) but shallow (Fig. 18). Palpi clothed with thin spine-like setae, tricobothria but not the "palpal brushes" of Hancock (1888). Females with similar sizes ancl coloration. Genital opercula clavate with narrow arms and broad Iobes that are slightly to strongly angled at their union; arms converging anteriorly. Pits on the anterior-ectal margins of opercula !arge and distinct and seemingly apart of the genital sternite. Fixed finger straight or smoothly curved in ventral view.

7  -      Pulcher complex

Males small to !arge in size. Lighter in color than magnus complex ranging from amber to cream colored. Mesoventral groove modified as a flat, bladelike structure seen from an anteriomesal view, generally extending under setal articulation area of fixed cheliceral finger. Ridge anterior to principal tooth of movable cheliceral finger less pronounced or absent. Movable finger of male with a more regular, slightly curved edge in ventral view (Fig. 46). Palpal papillae and ctenidia absent. Setal armament of palpus consists of short bristle-like setae that from a "brush" as well as Ionger spine-like setae, and trichobothria. Longer appendages than magnus complex as evidenced by A/CP varying from 3.5-6.4. Females similar to males in size and coloration. Female dentition similar to magnus complex. Genital opercula broadly triangular with broad arms and Iobes which may or may not be slightly angled at their union . Marginal pits are ectal, smaller than in magnus complex, and seem to be part of the sclerotized part of the opercula as opposed to magnus complex females which seem to have the pits as part of the genital sternite.

17 -    KEY TO MALES OF ARENOTHERUS NEW GENUS

1-A  Mesoventral groove of fixed finger narrow and distinct with an elevated ventral margin;
      width of fixed finger base less than width of fondal notch; movable finger sinuate in
      ventral view, magnus complex ........................................................................................ 2

1-B  Mesoventral groove of fixed finger wide with only part of a ventral margin; width of fixed
       finger base equal to or greater than width of fondal notch; movable finger slightly curved
       in ventral view, pulcher complex .................................................................................... 5

2-A  Palpi tibiae with dusky purple triangular markings apically; mesoventral groove distinct,
       and narrow, extending to base of setal articulation area of fixed finger; 2 small teeth on
       ridge anterior to principal tooth. Dusky species ................................................... magnus

2-B  Palpi tibiae dusky pruple over most of length ................................................................ 3

3-A  Mesoventral groove narrow and distinct extending below setal articulation area; width
       at base of fixed finger equal to width of fondal notch; accessory tooth present in fondal
       notch. Cream colored species ................................................................................ mumai

3-B  Mesoventral groove wider and less distinct; width of base of fixed finger less than width
       of fondal notch ............................................................................................................... 4

4-A  Mesoventral groove wider but less distinct than mumai and extending to or only slightly
       under setal articulation area; distinct ridge without teeth or 2 tiny teeth anterior to
       principal tooth of movable finger. Cream colored species ............................ puebloensis

4-B  Mesoventral groove indistinct and extending weil under the setal articulation area. An
       indistinct ridge without tiny teeth anterior to principal tooth of movable finger. Abortive
       teeth sometimes present on fixed finger. Dusky species ................................. magnellus

5-A  Dusky to darkly colored; extensive dusky purple markings on tarsi, metatarsi, and tibiae
       of palpi as weil as femurtibia union of leg IV ........................................................ pulcher

5-B  Pale to cream colored; at most triangular dusky purple markings on the distal end
       of palpal tibiae ............................................................................................................... 6

6-A  Fixed finger broad with base nearly twice the width of the fondal notch; mesoventral
       groove wide apically but indistinct .......................................................................... Iatus

6-B  Narrow fixed finger; narrow mesoventral groove with indistinct ventral margin ..........7

7-A  Palpi without dusky purple markings on palpal tibiae; leg IV unmarked ....................... 8

7-B  Palpi with triangular dusky purple markings on distal end of palpal tibiae; legs pale
       and unmarked ................................................................................................................ 9

8-A  Base of fixed finger narrower than width of fondal notch; mesoventral groove broad
       but distinguishable, running beneath setal articulation area of fixed finger ........ joshui

8-B  Base of fixed finger wider than width of fondal notch; mesoventral groove indistinct...
       ............................................................................................................................... tuttlei

9-A  Base of fixed finger equal to or wider than width of fondal notch; dorsal edge of fixed
       finger slightly notched to give it a scythe-like appearance; mesoventral groove broad
       but distinct extending under setal articulation area of fixed finger .................... arenus

9-B  Base of fixed finger equal to or narrower than width of fondal notch; dorsal edge of
       fixed finger slightly curved downward, mesoventral groove indistinct ............ pimanus

 

Muma 1989: 3 (key), 4 (as Arenotherus):

3  -     Key to Subfamilies and Genera of Eremobatidae

(Males Only)

1. Leg 1 with 1 claw; chelicerae about twice as long as wide; small to large species
    ...................................................................................................Eremobatinae Roewer-2

1'. Leg 1 with 2 claws; chelicerae 2.5–3 times longer than wide; tiny to moderate sized
   species ..................................................................................................... Therobatinae-6

2. Fixed cheliceral finger long, style-like or needle-like; mesoventral groove a crease, slot
    or cup-like structure; moderate-sized to large species ................................................. 3

2'. Fixed cheliceral finger short, sculptured and flanged; mesoventral groove a trough-like
    slot; moderate sized species ............................................................. Eremothera Muma

3. Mesoventral groove an indistinct hollow or crease that does not extend to the base of
    the fixed finger; movable finger dentition greatly reduced .............................................
   ................................................................................... Arenotherus Brookhart and Muma

3'. Mesoventral groove a distinct crease, cup, or slot that may or may not extend to base
    of fixed finger; movable finger dentition normal or increased ..................................... 4

4. Mesoventral groove short, not extending to base of fixed finger; apical striate or
   plumose setae of male flagellum complex not obviously modified or flattened ........... 5

4'. Mesoventral groove long, extending to base of fixed finger; apical plumose seta of
    male flagellum complex obviously enlarged or flattened covering part of the
    mesoventral groove............................................................................ Eremobates Banks

5. Palpal metatarsus, tibia, and femur provided with enlarged spine-like seta, but they
    are not in ventral rows, especially robust, nor obviously movable ... Eremopus Roewer

5'. Palpal metatarsus, tibia, and femur provided with 2 ventral rows of enlarged, robust,
    spine-like, obviously movable setae .................................................. Horribates Muma

6. Fixed cheliceral finger strongly recurved, sigmoid, or S-shaped; mesoventral groove
    absent; both dorsal and ventral flagellum complex setae plumose, moderate sized
    species...................................................................................................Chanbria Muma

6'. Fixed cheliceral finger style-like or needle-like, straight, curved, or undulate but not
    S-shaped or sigmoid; mesoventral groove present; dorsal flagellum complex setae
    striate, ventral setae striate or plumose ...................................................................... 7

7. Fixed cheliceral finger with a mesoventral groove that varies from one or more
    indistinct creases to an elongate hollow or cup; small to moderate sized species .....
   ......................................................................................................... Eremochelis Roewer

7'. Fixed cheliceral finger without a mesoventral groove; tiny to small species ................
   ....................................................................................................... Hemerotrecha Banks

4 -     Arenotherus Brookhart and Muma

Arenotherus Brookhart and Muma, 1987, pp. 1-18.

These moderate to large Eremobatinae have been delineated and described as 10 species which are distributed from south Texas to California. New species were described in the above paper and are not included here.


Harvey 2001: 196, 198–200:

196 - Abstract.

One purpose of this application is to conserve the names Ammotrecha Banks. 1900 and Ammotrechula Roewer. 1934 (family AMMOTRECHIDAE) for two genera of solifuges (camel spiders or sun spiders) from Central America and Mexico. At present Cleobis saltatrix Simon, 1879 is the valid type species of both genera. It is proposed that Galeodes limbata Lucas, 1835 be confirmed a the type species of Ammotrecha, following the universal acceptance of this specie as the type.  It is also proposed that the names Eremobates Banks, 1990 and Eremorhax Roewer, 1934 (family EREMOBATIDAE) be conserved for two genera of solifuges from the southern United States and Mexico. Datames formidabilis Simon, 1879, which is currently included in Eremorhax, is the valid type species of Eremobates. It is proposed that Galeodes pallipes Say, 1823 be confirmed as the type species of Eremobates in accordance with the accustomed understanding of the genus.

---

1. This application concerns the current understanding of two pairs of solifuge generic names. Ammotrecha Banks, 1900 and Ammotrechula Roewer, 1934. and Eremobates Banks, 1900 and Eremorhax Roewer, 1934. For each pair the nomenclature would be upset by the recognition of type species designations made by Simon (1879) and, in the case of Eremobates, by a further designation by Pocock (1902). The status of each pair of names is considered in turn and Commission action is proposed to conserve the names in their accustomed usage.

"198 -200 - B. Eremobates Banks, 1900 and Eremorhax Roewer, 1934 (family EREMOBATIDAE)

8. The solifuge genus Datames was established by Simon (1879, p. 133; ref. 1879a) for nine species of solifuges from the U.S.A. and Mexico, none of which was elected as the type species: Datames formidabilis Simon, 1879 (ref. 1879a), Gluvia geniculata C.L. Koch, 1842, Galeodes pallipes Say, 1823 (p. 3. footnote). Datames sulfureus Simon. 1879a and Datames californicus Simon, 1879a, and four doubtfully included species. Gluvia praecox C.L. Koch. 1842, Gluvia cinerascens C.L. Koch, 1842. Gluvia gracilis C. L. Koch, 1842 and Gluvia formicarius C. L. Koch. 1842. Later that year in a list of solifuge genera published (p. 78) in vol. 7 of Les arachnides de France, Simon (1879b) designated Datames formidabilis Simon, 1879a from Mexico as the type species of Datames.

9. Banks (1900. p. 426) noted that Datames Simon, 1879 was a junior homonym of Datames Stål, 1875 (Insecta) and proposed the replacement name Eremobates Banks, 1900 for the solifuge genus. Eremobates Banks is the type genus of EREMOBATINAE Kraepelin, 1901 (family SOLPUGIDAE). which was first elevated to family rank by Roewer (1934).

10. Apparently unaware of Simon's (1879b) type designation. Pocock (1902. p. 59) designated Gluvia cinerascens C. L. Koch. 1842 (p. 355) from Mexico as the type species of Eremobates. noting that Simon (1879a) had misidentified the male(s) but correctly identified the female(s) of Datames pallipes (Say, 1823). Roewer (1934, p. 555) listed D. pallipes as the type species of Eremobates, and placed G. cinerascens in a new genus. Roewer's (1934) type designation for Eremobates has been followed by other authors. including Muma (1951 ). Muma ( 1951, p. 72) synonymised G. cinerascens with D. pallipes which he later confirmed (Muma, 1970). The holotype of G. cinerascens is a male specimen (catalogue no. ZMB 188) in the Zoologisches Museum, Berlin, as recorded by Moritz & Fischer ( 1980, p. 140). Brookhart & Muma (1981, p. 292) designated a male specimen from Highway 205c, Byers. Arapahoe County, Colorado, U.S.A. and deposited in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, as the neotype o f D. pallipes.

11. Muma (1951, p. 92) established the new species Therobares bilobatus. now placed in the genus Eremochelis Roewer, 1934. for specimens misidentified as Datames pallipes (Say) by Simon (1879a), Banks (1900), Kraepelin (1901) and Roewer (1934).

12. Datames formidabilis Simon, 1879 is currently included in the genus Eremorhax Roewer, 1934 (p. 553) with the type species Datames magna Hancock, 1888 (p. 107, figs. A, B, a-h) (Harvey, in press). Despite the confused history of the identity of many North American solifuge species described in the 19th century it is clear that, if Simon's (1879) designation of D. formidabilis as the type species of Eremobates Banks, 1900 is left unchallenged, then the name Eremorhax becomes a junior synonym of Eremobates, and all species currently included in Eremorhax would be known as Eremobates. In addition. all species currently included in Eremobates would take the next available name, Eremoperna Roewer, 1934, which is currently treated (see Muma, 1951. p. 51) as a junior synonym of Eremobates.

13. Both the names Eremobates and Eremorhax are in current usage. A representative list of publications include Fichter (1940). Cloudsley-Thompson (1968, 1977). Brookhart (1972), Muma (1974a, 1974b, 1975a, 1975b, 1976, 1985, 1989). Brookhart & Muma (1981), Rowland & Reddell (1976) and Punzo (1998) for Eremobates, and Roewer ( 1952). Muma (1966a. 1966b. 1966c, 1967. 1974a, 1976, 1987). Rowland & Reddell ( 1976) and Punzo (1993, 1995. 1998) for Eremorhax. Therefore, in the interest of nomenclatural stability, I propose that the type designation for Eremobates Banks, 1900 made (under Article 67.8 of the Code) by Simon (1879b) be set aside, and that Galeodes pallipes Say, 1823 be confirmed as the type species following the designation by Roewer (1934). This will allow the accustomed usages of the names Eremobates and Eremorhax Roewer, 1934 to continue. Although preceded by type designations by Simon (1879b) and by Pocock (1902) and therefore invalid, Roewer's (1934) type designation was of a species originalJy included in Datames (= Eremobates) and it has been followed by subsequent authors.

14. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is accordingly asked:

(1) to use its plenary power to set aside all previous fixations of type species for the following nominal genera:

...

(b) Eremobates Banks, 1900 (= Datames Simon, 1879) prior to the designation by Roewer (1934) of Galeodes pallipes Say, 1823;

(2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the following names:

...

(c) Eremobates Banks, 1900 (gender: masculine), type species by subsequent designation by Roewer (1934) Galeodes pallipes Say, 1823. as ruled in (1)(b) above;

(d) Eremorhax Roewer. 1934 (gender: masculine), type species by monotypy Datames magna Hancock, 1888;

(3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the following names:

...

(c) pallipes Say, 1823, as published in the binomen Galeodes pallipes and as defined by the neotype designated by Brookhart & Muma (1981) (specific name of the type species of Eremobates Banks. 1900);

(d) magna Hancock, 1888, as published in the binomen Datames magna (specific name of the type species of Eremorhax Roewer. 1934);

(4) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology the following names:

...

(b) Datames Simon, 1879 (Solifugae) (a junior homonym of Datames Stål, 1875)."


Harvey 2002a: 450, 451:

450,451 - Genera Eremorhax Roewer, Arenotherus Brookhart and Muma, and Eremopus
         Roewer

Remarks

Roewer (1934) described numerous new eremobatid genera from the Americas, including Eremorhax Roewer with the type and only species, Datames magna Hancock, 1888. Although the types of this species from Laredo, Texas, are apparently lost (Muma, 1951, 1970), Roewer (1934) had access to five specimens, two males and three females, from Texas that he identified as E. magnus. The genus Eremorhax was later enlarged by Muma (1951, 1970) with the synonymy of Eremopus Roewer, 1934 (type species Eremopus montezuma Roewer, 1934 by original designation), Eremocosta Roewer, 1934 (type species Eremocosta gigas Roewer, 1934 by original designation), and Eremacantha Roewer, 1934 (type species Eremacantha robusta Roewer, 1934 by original designation). Eremorhax was made the type genus of Eremorhaxinae Roewer, 1934, although this subfamily was later synonymized under Eremobatinae Kraepelin by Muma (1951).

Brookhart and Muma (1987) discussed the identity of the species described as E. magnus (Hancock, 1888) by Roewer (1934), concluding that it was not conspecific with the species described and illustrated by Hancock (1888) and Muma (1951). Rather, they considered it a representative of the genus Eremobates Banks, but did not speculate any further on its identity. They then placed Eremorhax Roewer as a junior synonym of Eremobates Banks, 1900, and described a new genus, Arenotherus Brookhart and Muma, 1987 for Datames magna Hancock, 1888 and several other species. Although they consistently referred to the new genus as accommodating those species previously placed in the Eremorhax magnus group of Muma (1951), they did not specify a type species, in contravention of Article 13(b) of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 3rd edition. The remaining species previously placed in Eremorhax were transferred to Eremopus by Muma (1989).

The lack of a type designation for Arenotherus was clearly a lapsus by Brookhart and Muma (1987), and I hereby designate Datames magna Hancock, 1888 as type species (new designation), as they so obviously intended.

In addition, when Brookhart and Muma (1987) discovered that Roewer (1934) had misidentified the type species when describing the genus Eremorhax, they were required by Article 70(b) of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature then in effect (3rd edition) to request the Commission to resolve the case. Article 70.3 of the 4th edition of the Code (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1999) gives authors the power to designate as type species that species which best serves stability and universality - either the nominal species previously cited as type species, regardless of misidentification, or the species actually involved which was wrongly named in the type fixation - without application to the Commission. Designation of the nominal species previously cited as the type species would render Arenotherus Brookhart and Muma (1987) as a junior synonym of Eremorhax. Designation of the species actually involved would render the misidentified specimens available to Roewer (1934) as representing the type species. The identity of these specimens is unclear and my attempts to locate the material have proved fruitless - Roewer (1934) did not state from which institution they were borrowed, and they were not part of Roewer's collection now lodged in Naturmuseum Senckenburg, Frankfurt (Zilch, 1946). However, Brookhart and Muma (1987) did state (p. 1) that Roewer's description fitted a species of Eremobates but without access to these specimens it will be difficult to determine their identity.

In the interests of stability, I here propose that the first option is the best solution and I here designate Datames magna Hancock, 1888 as the type species of Eremorhax, regardless of the misidentification made by Roewer (1934). This automatically places Arenotherus as a junior objective synonym of Eremorhax Roewer, 1934 (syn. nov.).

The following species are here referred to Eremorhax:

Eremorhax arenus (Brookhart and Muma, 1987), comb. nov., E. joshui (Brookhart and Muma, 1987), comb. nov., E. latus Muma, 1951, E. magnellus (Brookhart and Muma, 1987), comb. nov., E. magnus (Hancock, 1888), comb. nov., E. mumai Brookhart, 1972, E. pimanus (Brookhart and Muma, 1987), comb. nov., E. puebloensis Brookhart, 1965, E. pulcher Muma, 1963 and E. tuttlei (Brookhart and Muma, 1987), comb. novo. 


Harvey 2003e:247:

247 - Genus Eremorhax Roewer

Eremorhax Roewer, 1934: 553; Muma, 1951: 41-43; Muma, 1970a: 4; Muma, 1976: 14;
   Harvey, 2001: 198-199.

Arenotherus Brookhart and Muma, 1987: 3; Muma, 1989:4 (synonymised by Harvey,
    2002: 451).

Type species: of Eremorhax: Datames magna Hancock, 1888, by original designation.

of Arenotherus: Datames magna Hancock, 1888 by subsequent designation of Harvey, 2002: 450.

Distribution: Mexico, southern U.S.A.


Brookhart and Brookhart 2006: 301:

301 -    Key to Subfamilies and Genera of Eremobatidae (males only)

(Taken from Muma 1987)

1. Leg 1 with 1 claw; chelicerae about twice as long as wide; small to large species ...........
   ....................................................................................................Eremobatinae Roewer-2

    Leg 1 with 2 claws; chelicerae 2.5–3 times longer than wide; tiny to moderate sized
   species...................................................................................................... Therobatinae-6

2. Fixed cheliceral finger long, style-like or needle-like; mesoventral groove a crease, slot
   or cup-like structure; moderate-sized to large species .................................................. 3

    Fixed cheliceral finger short, sculptured and flanged; mesoventral groove a trough-like
   slot;    moderate sized species ...................................................................... Eremothera

3. Mesoventral groove an indistinct hollow or crease that does not extend to the base
    of the fixed finger; anterior tooth absent ..................................................... Eremorhax

    Mesoventral groove a distinct crease, cup, or slot that may or may not extend to base
   of fixed finger; anterior tooth present .......................................................................... 4

4. Mesoventral groove short, not extending to base of fixed finger; apical striate or
    plumose setae of male flagellum complex not obviously modified or flattened.......... 5

    Mesoventral groove long, extending to base of fixed finger; apical plumose seta of
   male flagellum complex obviously enlarged or flattened; covering part of the
   mesoventral groove ..................................................................................... Eremobates

5. Palpal metatarsus, tibia, and femur provided with enlarged spine-like seta, but not
   robust, not aligned in a ventral row, not movable ........................................ Eremocosta

    Palpal metatarsus, tibia, and femur provided ventrally with robust, obviously movable
   spinelike setae ................................................................................................. Horribates

6. Fixed cheliceral finger strongly recurved, sigmoid, or S-shaped; mesoventral groove
   absent; both dorsal and ventral flagellum complex setae plumose, moderate sized
    species................................................................................................................Chanbria

    Fixed cheliceral finger style-like or needle-like, straight, curved, or undulate but not
   S-shaped or sigmoid; mesoventral groove present; dorsal flagellum complex setae
   striate, ventral setae striate or plumose ....................................................................... 7

7. Fixed cheliceral finger with a mesoventral groove that may vary from a distinct crease
   to an elongate hollow or cup; dorsal flagellum complex simple or tubular; small to
   moderate sized species ................................................................................ Eremochelis

   Fixed cheliceral finger without a mesoventral groove; dorsal flagellum complex
  hooked or spatulate; tiny to small species ................................................ Hemerotrecha

Genus Eremorhax Roewer 1934

Eremorhax Roewer 1934:553.

Arenotherus Brookhart & Muma 1987:3.


Notes:

Roewer (1934) placed the genus in its own subfamily, which he characterized as:

"Eremobatidae, deren 1. - 4. Tarsus jeweils 1-gliedrig ist (Abb. 319, a, b, g, h)."

Muma (1951) recognized Eremorhax as containing two species groups: the magnus group (currently retained as Eremorhax) and the striatus group (currently recognized as the genus Eremocosta). Members of the magnus group [Eremorhax] were characterized as having the fixed finger of the male weakly creased or hollowed mesoventrally, while members of the striatus group [Eremocosta] were characterized as having the fixed finger of the male distinctly grooved mesoventrally.  Muma (1970a) later characterized members of the genus Eremorhax in his  key to the subfamilies and genera of Eremobatidae as "robust, short legged species", although in the paragraph preceding the key, he makes reference to "[s]everal long legged species of the Eremorhax striatus species-group", now in the genus Eremocosta Roewer. The genus contains ten species from the southwestern United States and Mexico.


Included species


  • Magnus complex
  •    Eremorhax magnellus (Brookhart & Muma 1987)
  •    Eremorhax magnus (Hancock 1888)
  •    Eremorhax mumai Brookhart 1972
  •    Eremorhax puebloensis Brookhart 1965
  • Pulcher complex
  •    Eremorhax arenus (Brookhart & Muma 1987)
  •    Eremorhax joshui (Brookhart & Muma 1987)
  •    Eremorhax latus Muma 1951
  •    Eremorhax pimanus (Brookhart & Muma 1987)
  •    Eremorhax pulcher Muma 1963
  •    Eremorhax tuttlei (Brookhart & Muma 1987)

 

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