Genus Eremobates Banks 1900

Eremobates ►Banks 1900: 426; ►Kraepelin 1901: 117; ►Pocock 1902a: 59; Comstock 1913: 36; Pratt 1927: 408; ►Roewer 1934: 555, 556, fig. 320 a, h; Pratt 1935: 477; ►Muma 1951: 41, 51; ►Muma 1970a: 3 (key),  10; ►Muma 1976: 7, 15; ►Muma 1989: 3, 6; Harvey 2001: 198-199 [replacement name for Datames Simon, 1879a]; ; ►Harvey 2003e: 305; ►Brookhart and Cushing 2004: 288; ►Brookhart and Brookhart 2006: 301.

Eremoperna ►Roewer 1934: 555-557, figs. 320 b, i (synonymized by Muma, 1951: 51).

Eremospina ►Roewer 1934: 555, 556, 565, figs. 320 c, l (synonymized through transfer of type species to Eremobates by Muma, 1970a: 29).

Eremognatha ►Roewer 1934: 555, 556, 566, figs. 320 d, l (synonymized by Muma, 1951: 51).

Eremoseta Roewer ►1934: 555, 556, 569, figs. 320 e, l (synonymized by Muma, 1970a: 21).

Eremostata Roewer, ►1934: 555, 556, 571-572, figs. 320 (synonymized by Muma, 1951: 51).


Female Eremobates sp., palpisetulosus group, from California, USA, feeding on termites. Photo by Warren E. Savary.


Type species:

of Datames and Eremobates: Gluvia cinerascens C.L. Koch 1842, by subsequent designation of Pocock (1902c): 59 [see Harvey 2001a: 198-199] [see Eremobates cinerascens (C.L.Koch)].

of Eremoperna: Datames affinis Kraepelin 1899b, by original designation [see Eremobates affinis (Kraepelin)].

of Eremospina: Gluvia tolteca Pocock 1895a, by original designation [see Eremobates tolteca (Pocock)].

of Eremognatha: Datames tuberculatus Kraepelin 1899b, by original designation [see Eremobates tuberculatus (Kraepelin)].

of Eremoseta: Eremoseta titschacki Roewer 1934, by original designation [see Eremobates titschacki (Roewer)].

of Eremostata: Gluvia cinerascens C.L. Koch 1842, by original designation [see Eremobates cinerascens (C.L. Koch)].


Diagnosis:

Eremobatine species in which the fixed cheliceral finger of the male bears a distinct mesal groove that reaches the finger base and contains an enlarged, flattened bristle.


Mesal view of fixed finger of male Eremobates sp., palpisetulosus group, from California, showing mesal groove and enlarged, flattened bristle contained therein.


Original description:

Simon, 1879a: 133-135 (as Datames):

133-135 - "Mamelon oculaire garni en dessus el en avant de crins nombreux, irréguliers, non soulevés. - Partie céphalique peu longue, obtusément trapézoide, en ligne droite ou un peu arquée en avant, en ligne presque droite en arriere, a cotes assez fortement obliques et convergeant en arrière, sans strie longitudinale. - Chélicères de la femelle à crochet fixe en dessus, plus court que la tige, arqué et pourvu d'une rangée de dente inégales disposèes comme chez let Gluvia, seulement les deux dents principales toujours séparées par deux denticules; chez le màle, le crochet fixe ausel long que la tige, brusquement rétréci dès la base, droit, dépourvu de dents et canaliculé en dessous à la base; dans les deux sexes, le fond da la pince pourvu de deux rangées écartées de dents obtuses; les deux dents principales du crochet mobile séparées par deux denticules, - Pas de peignés stigmatatiques. - Patte-machiore à tarse oourt soudé au métatarse et immobile. - Pattes de la première paire à tarse long droit. gréle, de moitié ou d'un tiers plus court que le métatarse. dépourvu da griffes dans les deux sexes. - Griffes longues, gréles, g1abres, plus courtes aux paires intermédiaires qu'à la quatrième, - Hanches de la patte-máchoire et de la première paire réunies, presque aussi larges que longues.

Ce genre est exclusivement propre à l'Amérique; il renferme toutes les espèces anciennement décrites par T. Say et plus récemment par C. Koch, sous le nom générique de Gluvia. Les deux groupes établis par C. Koch (in Archiv. f. Naturg.) reposent sur un caractère sexuel, aussi les espèces du second ne sont-elles pour la plupart que les femelles de celles du premier.

Le genre Datames a deux centres principaux: le premier aux États-Unis, dans les montagnes Rocheuses et les régions du Pacifique: en Colorado, Nevada. Utah et Californie; il n'a aucun représentant dans les réglone de l'Atlantique, si ce n'est dans Texas. où a élé signalée une espèce mexicaine (geniculatus). Il est à. remarquer que toutes les spèces des Étals-Unis se reconnaissent de suite en ce que, chez les femelles, les deux petites denticulations intermédiaires des chélicères sont parfaitement isolées. - Le second centre est au Mexique, le genre Datames y est représenté par des espéces généralement plus grandes, dont les deux petites denticulations sont toujours implantées sur la antérieure de la seconde dent principale. C. Koch a aussi décrit deux Datames de Colombie dont la provenance est pent--étre erronée, car, dans toute l'Amérique du Sud et les Antilles, les Datames paraissent remplacés par les Cleobis, et les Mummucia.

Les caractères propres aux deux sexes, qui séparent les Datames des Gluvia, sont assez secondaires, mais d'une constance absolue: chez les Datames, les deux dents principales des crochete des chélicères sont séparees par deux denticules, tandis qu'll n'y, a qu'un seul chez les Gluvia; le métatarse de la troisième paire porte en dessus une ligne de cinq fortes épines ches les Datames, tandis que celui des Gluvia n'en a que trois; mais les Datames s'éloignent de tous les Galeodidae connus par l'éntrange conformation des chélicères du male, dont le crochet fixe est inerme et droit, et dont le flagellum est remplacé par un fort faisceau de crins; l'abdomen est dépourvu des épines bacilliformes si caractéristiques chez les Gluvia."


Subsequent accounts:

Simon, 1879c: 78 (as Datames)


Publication not located.


Banks, 1900: 426, 427:

426, 427 - "Our genera and species may be tabulated as below.

1. Anterior margin of the cephalothorax rounded, sIoping each side.........(Ammotrecha)....91
Anterior margin truncate...........................................................................(Eremobates)....22

2. Movable finger of ♂ mandibles with two large subequal teeth with denticles between them.....................................................................................................................................3
Movable finger with but one large tooth, others much smaller..........................................4

3. Some short conical spines under tibia of the palpus in both sexes...Eremobates sulphurea Sim. (Colo., N. Mex.)
No such spines under tibia in either sex....................Eremobates formicaria Koch (N. Mex.)

4. Movable finger of ♂ mandibles constricted from below near apical third..........Eremobates californica Sim (Ariz., Cal.)
Movable finger not constricted from below........................................................................5

5. The movable finger near apical fourth is suddenly narrowed from above, very large species.................................................................................Eremobates cinerea Putn. (Ariz.)
The movable finger, if narrowed from above, it is much before the apical fourth..............6

6. Only slender hairs on inner side of femur and tibia of ♂ palpus...........Eremobates pallipes Say (Kan., Tex., Colo., WVy.)
Spine-like bristles on inner side of femur and tibia of ♂ palpus..........................................7

7. Upper finger stouter than usual, narrowed near tip, a small tooth near middle of movable finger, tips of palpi black.............................................Eremobates magna Hanc. (Tex., Ariz.)
Upper finger slender throughout, no tooth near middle of movable finger.......................8

8. Small conical spines on underside of tibia of ♂ palpus..................Eremobates formidabilis Sim. (Cal., Ariz.)
No such spines on tibia of ♂ palpus......................................Eremobates putnami Bks. (Cal.)

9. Lower finger of mandibles finely, but distinctly, denticulate beyond large teeth; a broad dark band on middle of metatarsus of palpus.................Ammotrecha californica Bks. (Cal.)
Lower finger not denticulate............................................................................................10

10. Upper finger with a very plain ridge above at base, below there are several small teeth followed by three large subequal teeth.......................Ammotrecha peninsulana Bks. (Ariz.)
Upper finger with less distinct ridge, below there are two large teeth, a small one, then a large one...............................................................................Ammotrecha cubae Lucas (Fla.)

1 Ammotrecha, n.n. for Cleobis Simon (i879), not Dana (1847)."

2 Eremobates, n.n. for Datames Simon (1879). not Stål (1875)."


Kraepelin 1901a: 117:

117 - "Mit den Merkmalen der Unterfamilie.
18 sichere und 3 unsichere Arten.
Bei der grossen Verschiedenheit der ♂ und ♀ und bei der Spärlichkeit des in den Sammlungen vorliegenden Materials ist erst für veihältnismässig wenige Arten die Zusammengehörigkeit von ♂ und ♀ sicher festgestellt. Es sind daher zahlreiche ♂ und ♀ gesondert beschrieben und benannt, die sich voraussichtlich später als zusammengehörig erweisen werden. Da überdies die ♀ der verschiedenen Arten, wie auch sonst bei den Solifugen, eine weitgehende Übereinstimmung zeigen, so kann der nachfolgende Bestimmungsschlüssel nur als erster Versuch gelten, die Hauptformen von einander abzugliedern."


Pocock, 1902: 59:

59 -   "Leg of first pair without claw. Tarsus of legs furnished beneath with distinct pairs of spines; tibia of second and third legs furnished above with five strong spines arranged in a single series, and three or four pairs of weaker spines below. Mandibles with only feebly developed stridulating-ridges on the anterior portion of the smooth area on the inner side of their appendages; without any flagellum, and with the upper jaw untoothed in the male.
Type Gluvia cinerascens, C. L. Koch.
Distribution. Southern States of North America and Mexico."


Roewer, 1934: 555, 556, fig. 320 a, h (as Eremobates Banks):

555,556 - Genotypus: E. pallipes (Say).
Eremobatinae, deren 2. und 3. Tarsus ventral mit jeweils 2.2 Dornen und deren 4. Tarsus ventral mit 2.2/0/2 Dornen bewehrt ist (Abb. 320, a, h).
2 Arten, von der eine nur als ♂, die andere nur als ♀ bekannt ist.
Eremobates pallipes (Say 1823), Eremobates durangonus Roewer 1934

Abb. 320a. Ventrale Bedornung des 2.-oder 3. Tarsus von Eremobates.
Abb. 320h. Ventrale Bedornung des 4. Tarsus von Eremobates.
Redrawn from Roewer 1934.


Roewer, 1934: 555-557, figs. 320 b, i (as Eremoperna Roewer 1934):

555-557 - Genotypus: E affinis (Kraepelin).
Eremobatinae, deren 2. und 3. Tarus ventral mit jeweils 4.6 Dornen und deren 4. Tarsus ventral mit 2.2.2/0/2.4 Domen bewehrt ist (Abb. 320, b, i).
4 Arten, von denen eine nur als ♀ bekannt ist.
Datames affinis Kraepelin 1899, Datames formidabilis Simon 1879, Eremobates azteca Pocock 1902, Eremoperna mormona Roewer 1934

Abb. 320b. Ventrale Bedornung des 2.-oder 3. Tarsus von Eremoperna.
Abb. 320i. Ventrale Bedornung des 4. Tarsus von Eremoperna.
Redrawn from Roewer 1934.


Roewer, 1934: 555, 556, 565, figs. 320 c, l (as Eremospina Roewer 1934):

555, 556, 565 - Genotypus: E. tolteca (Pocock).
Eremobatinae, deren 2. und 3. Tarsus ventral mit jeweils 1.4.6 Dornen und deren 4. Tarsus ventral mit 2.2.2/0/2.4.6 Dornen bewehrt ist (Abb. 320, c, l).
Nur 1 Art.
Gluvia tolteca Pocock 1895

Abb. 320c. Ventrale Bedornung des 2.-oder 3. Tarsus von Eremospina.
Abb. 320l. Ventrale Bedornung des 4. Tarsus von Eremospina.
Redrawn from Roewer 1934.


Roewer, 1934: 555, 556, 566, figs. 320 d, l (as Eremognatha Roewer 1934):

555, 556, 566 - Genotypus: E. tuberculatus (Kraepelin).
Eremobatinae, deren 2. und 3. Tarsus ventral mit jeweils 2.2.2.4.6 Dornen und deren 4. Tarsus ventral mit 2.2.2/0/2.4.6 Dornen bewehrt ist (Abb. 320, d, l).
3 Arten, von denen die eine nur als ♂ bekannt ist:
Datames tuberculata Kraepelin 1899, Eremobates marginata Kraepelin 1911, Eremognatha guenini Roewer 1934.

Abb. 320d. Ventrale Bedornung des 2.-oder 3. Tarsus von Eremognatha.
Abb. 320l. Ventrale Bedornung des 4. Tarsus von Eremognatha.
Redrawn from Roewer 1934.


Roewer, 1934: 555, 556, 569, figs. 320 e, l (as Eremoseta Roewer 1934):

555, 556, 569 - Genotypus : E. titschacki Roewer 1934.
Eremobatinae, deren 2. und 3. Tarsus ventral mit jeweils 2.2.4.4.6.6.6 Dornen und deren 4. Tarsus ventral mit 2.2.2/0/2.4.6 Dornen bewehrt ist (Abb. 320, e, l).
Nur I Art:
Eremoseta titschacki Roewer 1934.

Abb. 320e. Ventrale Bedornung des 2.-oder 3. Tarsus von Eremoseta.
Abb. 320l. Ventrale Bedornung des 4. Tarsus von Eremoseta.
Redrawn from Roewer 1934.


Roewer, 1934: 555, 556, 571, 572, figs. 320 g, o (as Eremostata Roewer 1934):

555, 556, 571, 572 - Genotypus: E. cinerascens (Koch).
Eremobatinae, deren 2. und 3. Tarsus ventral mit jeweils 2.4.4.6.6.6 Dornen und deren 4. Tarsus ventral mit 4.2.2.4.2.2.4/2/2.4.6 Dornen bewehrt ist (Abb. 320, g, o). (Die ♀♀ aller bisher bekannten Arten haben keine wahrnehmbaren Ctenidien an den opisthosomalen Sterniten.)
7 Arten, von denen nur eine in beiden Geschlechtern bekannt ist.
Gluvia cinarascens Koch 1842, Eremostata arizonica Roewer 1934, Datames sulfurea Simon 1879, Datames caroliniana Kraepelin 1899, Datames californica Simon 1879, Eremostata dinamita Roewer 1934, Datames scabra Kraepelin 1899

Abb. 320g. Ventrale Bedornung des 2.-oder 3. Tarsus von Eremostata.
Abb. 320o. Ventrale Bedornung des 4. Tarsus von Eremostata.
Redrawn from Roewer 1934.


Muma, 1951: 51:

51 - Small- to moderate-sized Eremobatinae. Fixed finger of males with a mesoventral groove that extends the entire length of the finger. Flagellum complex composed of a dorsal row of simple tubular bristles that are sometimes striate and a ventral row of S-shaped, flattened, plumose bristles that form an arch over the basal third of the mesoventral groove. Apical, plumose bristle of ventral row straight and forming a parallel covering for the apical two-thirds of the mesoventral groove. First post-spiracular abdominal sternite of males with or without ctenidia on its posterior margin. Mesal tooth of movable finger of males and females present or absent. Genital opercula of females variable.


Muma, 1970a: 3 (key), 10:

3 -KEY TO SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF EREMOBATIDAE
(MALES AND FEMALES)

1. Leg I with 1 claw; large, robust, short legged species ...................... Eremobatinae Roewer-2

    Leg I with 2 claws; small, slender, long legged species ....................... Therobatinae Muma-5

2. Palpus with 2 ventral rows of long, robust, spinelike, erectile and deflectile setae on femur,
   tibia, metatarsus, and tarsus ...................................................................... Horribates Muma

    Palpus with or without spinelike setae; when present, apparently not movable and not on
   metatarsus and tarsus .......................................................................................................... 3

(MALES ONLY)

3. Fixed finger short and dorsally lobate or sculptured ................................ Eremothera Muma

    Fixed finger elongate and need1elike or stylelike ................................................................ 4

4. Mesoventral groove of fixed finger extending to base of finger; apical seta of flagellum-
  complex flattened and plumose ................................................................ Eremobates Banks

    Mesoventral groove of fixed finger not extending to base of finger; apical seta of flagellum-
  complex tubular, at most striate ............................................................... Eremorhax Roewer

5. Dorsal setae of flagellum complex simple and tubular ........................... Eremochelis Roewer

    Dorsal setae of flagellum-complex striate, plumose, spatulate, or otherwise modified .......
   ............................................................................................................................................... 6

6. Fixed finger distinctly sinuate, bent upward and bent or curved downward; dorsal setae
  plumose ......................................................................................................... Chanbria Muma

10  - Genus Eremobates Banks

Datames Simon, 1819, p, 113 (preoccupied).

Eremobates Banks, 1900, p.426 (new name for Datames Simon).

Eremoperna, Roewer, 1934, p. 557 (in part).

Eremopus Roewer, 1934, p. 561 (in part).

Eremognatha Roewer, 1934, p. 566 (in part).

Eremocosta Roewer, 1934, p. 569 (in part).

Eremostata Roewer, 1934, p. 571 (in part).

KEY TO SPECIES-GROUPS

(MALES)

1. Fixed cheliceral finger in dorsal view with wide basal notch.....................scaber group

     Fixed cheliceral finger in dorsal view without wide basal notch..................................2

2. Mesal groove of fixed finger mesodorsal in position...............................aztecus group

     Mesal groove of fixed finger mesoventral in position ................................................ 3

3. Fixed cheliceral finger with ectodorsal toothlike process near base ..... palpisetulosus
   group

     Fixed chelicera] finger without such process ............................................................. 4

4. Mesoventral groove of fixed cheliceral finger distinctly dilated basally .......... pallipes
    group

     Mesoventral groove ef fixed cheliceral finger narrow, not dilated basally ... angustus
   group


Muma 1976:

15  - "Genus Eremobates Banks, 1900

Although 58 names have been applied to species of this large genus, only 36 are presently considered valid. Muma (1970) recognized five species-groups but was unable to place twelve species."


Muma 1986/Muma 1987

5  -     "Genus Eremobates Banks, 1900

None of the new species assigned to this genus significantly extend or alter the presently established generic characters. One species, E. lapazi new species, requires the establishment of a new species-group, which is here named the lapazi-group."


Muma 1989: 3 (key), 6

3 -     Key to Subfamilies and Genera of Eremobatidae

(Males Only)

1. Leg 1 with 1 claw; chelicerae about twice as long as wide; small to large species ...............
   ........................................................................................................Eremobatinae Roewer-2

1'. Leg 1 with 2 claws; chelicerae 2.5–3 times longer than wide; tiny to moderate sized
   species ......................................................................................................... Therobatinae-6

2. Fixed cheliceral finger long, style-like or needle-like; mesoventral groove a crease, slot or
   cup-like structure; moderate-sized to large species .......................................................... 3

2'. Fixed cheliceral finger short, sculptured and flanged; mesoventral groove a trough-like
    slot; moderate sized species ................................................................. Eremothera Muma

3. Mesoventral groove an indistinct hollow or crease that does not extend to the base of
    the fixed finger; movable finger dentition greatly reduced ................................................
   ....................................................................................... Arenotherus Brookhart and Muma

3'. Mesoventral groove a distinct crease, cup, or slot that may or may not extend to base of
   fixed finger; movable finger dentition normal or increased .............................................. 4

4. Mesoventral groove short, not extending to base of fixed finger; apical striate or
   plumose setae of male flagellum complex not obviously modified or flattened .............. 5

4'. Mesoventral groove long, extending to base of fixed finger; apical plumose seta of male
   flagellum complex obviously enlarged or flattened covering part of the mesoventral
   groove...................................................................................................... Eremobates Banks

5. Palpal metatarsus, tibia, and femur provided with enlarged spine-like seta, but they are not
    in ventral rows, especially robust, nor obviously movable ..................... Eremopus Roewer

5'. Palpal metatarsus, tibia, and femur provided with 2 ventral rows of enlarged, robust, spine-
    like, obviously movable setae ..................................................................... Horribates Muma

6. Fixed cheliceral finger strongly recurved, sigmoid, or S-shaped; mesoventral groove
    absent; both dorsal and ventral flagellum complex setae plumose, moderate sized
    species...........................................................................................................Chanbria Muma

6'. Fixed cheliceral finger style-like or needle-like, straight, curved, or undulate but not
    S-shaped or sigmoid; mesoventral groove present; dorsal flagellum complex setae striate,
    ventral setae striate or plumose ....................................................................................... 7

7. Fixed cheliceral finger with a mesoventral groove that varies from one or more indistinct
    creases to an elongate hollow or cup; small to moderate sized species ............................
   ............................................................................................................... Eremochelis Roewer

7'. Fixed cheliceral finger without a mesoventral groove; tiny to small species .......................
    ............................................................................................................. Hemerotrecha Banks

6, 7 -   Genus Eremobates Banks, 1900 .

Datames Simon, 11879, p. 113. (preoccupied)

Eremobates Banks, 1900, p . 426; Muma, 1951, p. 51; Muma, 1970, p. 10. (new name
      for Datames Simon)

Eremoperna Roewer, 1934, p. 557. (in part)

Eremognathus Roewer, 1934, p. 516. (in part)

Eremocosta Roewer, 1934, p. 571. (in part)

Mostly moderate-sized Eremobatinae. Fixed cheliceral finger of males with mesodorsal or mesoventral groove extending the length of finger. Dorsal setae of flagellum complex striate, ventral setae plumose; apical striate seta not obviously modified but apical plumose seta conspicuously flattened and covering part to nearly all of mesoventral groove. Most females have the opercula broadly triangular in shape but variable along mesal and posterior margins. Females of palpisetulosus, aztecus, and vallis groups have opercula pitted and alate laterally but variable in size and form. Fondal tooth formulae are no longer considered valid for genus or group separation; they are subject to wear, especially by females.

Key to species groups of Eremobates Banks

(Males)

1.  Mesal groove of fixed chelicera! finger mesodorsal in position ................ aztecus group

1'. Mesal groove of fixed chelicera! finger mesoventral in position ................................... 2

2.  Mesal groove broad both basally and apically, occupying most of finger width .............
  ....................................................................................................................... vallis group

2'. Mesal groove narrow apically, occupying less than half of finger width ....................... 3

3.  Mesal groove not dilated basally ............................................................ angustus group

3'. Mesal groove distinctly dilated basally .......................................................................... 4

4.  Fixed chelicera! finger in dorsal view with a wide notch or off-set ............ scaber group

4'. Fixed chelicera! finger in dorsal view straight or at most slightly sinuate ..................... 5

5.  Fixed finger with an ectodorsal, ridge-like or tooth-like process near its base ................
 ........................................................................................................ palpisetulosus group

5'. Fixed finger constricted near base but without an ectodorsal tooth-like process ......... 6

6.  Anterior tooth of movable cheliceral finger present and normal; small species .............
.................................................................................................................... pallipes group

6'. Anterior tooth of movable cheliceral finger absent or abortive; Iarge species ................
....................................................................................................................... lapazi group

(Females)

1.  Opercula widely separated posteriorly and/or slightly to distinctly lobate at posterio-
 ectal angles and with a pair of distinct pits about midway along ectal margins ............. 2

1'. Opercula not or only moderately separated posteriorly; broadly triangular in shape
 and without distinct pits midway along ectal margins except for E. mimbrenus new
 species ............................................................................................................................. 4

2.  Posteriomesal notch small and flat, occupying a minor portion of opercular area, pits
 shallow ............................................................................................................ vallis group

2'. Posteriomesal notch wide and long, occupying at least a third of opercular area, pits
 deep ................................................................................................................................. 3

3.  Posteriomesal notch of opercula smoothly flared or arched mesally .............................
  .......................................................................................................... palpisetulosus group

3'. Posteriomesal notch of opercula sinuate or weakly lobate mesally within the notch .....
  ...................................................................................................................... azteca group

4.  Mesal margins of opercula lobate, bilobate or sinuate at or just anterior to
 posteriomesal notch ..................................................................................... scaber group

4'. Mesal margins of opercula straight or evenly curved to the posteriomesal notch ........ 5

5.  Mesal margins of opercula divergent both anteriorly and posteriorly ..... angustus group

5'. Mesal margins of opercula parallel anteriorly although variously notched posteriorly ...
...........................................................................................................................................6

6.  Posterior mesal margins of opercula sinuate; posteriomesal notch narrow and slot-like
  ....................................................................................................................... lapazi group

6'. Posterior mesal margins of opercula straight or evenly curved; posteriomesal notch
 variable in form ........................................................................................... pallipes group


Harvey 2001: 198,199:

198,199 - "B. Eremobates Banks, 1900 and Eremorhax Roewer, 1934 (family EREMOBATIDAE)

8. The solifuge genus Datames was established by Simon (1879, p. 133; ref. 1879a) for nine species of solifuges from the U.S.A. and Mexico, none of which was elected as the type species: Datames formidabilis Simon, 1879 (ref. 1879a), Gluvia geniculata C.L. Koch, 1842, Galeodes pallipes Say, 1823 (p. 3. footnote). Datames sulfureus Simon. 1879a and Datames californicus Simon, 1879a, and four doubtfully included species. Gluvia praecox C.L. Koch. 1842, Gluvia cinerascens C.L. Koch, 1842. Gluvia gracilis C. L. Koch, 1842 and Gluvia formicarius C. L. Koch. 1842. Later that year in a list of solifuge genera published (p. 78) in vol. 7 of Les arachnides de France, Simon (1879b) designated Datames formidabilis Simon, 1879a from Mexico as the type species of Datames.

9. Banks (1900. p. 426) noted that Datames Simon, 1879 was a junior homonym of Datames Stål, 1875 (Insecta) and proposed the replacement name Eremobates Banks, 1900 for the solifuge genus. Eremobates Banks is the type genus of EREMOBATINAE Kraepelin, 1901 (family SOLPUGIDAE). which was first elevated to family rank by Roewer (1934).

10. Apparently unaware of Simon's (1879b) type designation. Pocock (1902. p. 59) designated Gluvia cinerascens C. L. Koch. 1842 (p. 355) from Mexico as the type species of Eremobates. noting that Simon (1879a) had misidentified the male(s) but correctly identified the female(s) of Datames pallipes (Say, 1823). Roewer (1934, p. 555) listed D. pallipes as the type species of Eremobates, and placed G. cinerascens in a new genus. Roewer's (1934) type designation for Eremobates has been followed by other authors. including Muma (1951 ). Muma ( 1951, p. 72) synonymised G. cinerascens with D. pallipes which he later confirmed (Muma, 1970). The holotype of G. cinerascens is a male specimen (catalogue no. ZMB 188) in the Zoologisches Museum, Berlin, as recorded by Moritz & Fischer ( 1980, p. 140). Brookhart & Muma (1981, p. 292) designated a male specimen from Highway 205c, Byers. Arapahoe County, Colorado, U.S.A. and deposited in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, as the neotype of D. pallipes.

11. Muma (1951, p. 92) established the new species Therobares bilobatus. now placed in the genus Eremochelis Roewer, 1934. for specimens misidentified as Datames pallipes (Say) by Simon (1879a), Banks (1900), Kraepelin (1901) and Roewer (1934).

12. Datames formidabilis Simon, 1879 is currently included in the genus Eremorhax Roewer, 1934 (p. 553) with the type species Datames magna Hancock, 1888 (p. 107, figs. A, B, a-h) (Harvey, in press). Despite the confused history of the identity of many North American solifuge species described in the 19th century it is clear that, if Simon's (1879) designation of D. formidabilis as the type species of Eremobates Banks, 1900 is left unchallenged, then the name Eremorhax becomes a junior synonym of Eremobates, and all species currently included in Eremorhax would be known as Eremobates. In addition. all species currently included in Eremobates would take the next available name, Eremoperna Roewer, 1934, which is currently treated (see Muma, 1951. p. 51) as a junior synonym of Eremobates.

13. Both the names Eremobates and Eremorhax are in current usage. A representative list of publications include Fichter (1940). Cloudsley-Thompson (1968, 1977). Brookhart (1972), Muma (1974a, 1974b, 1975a, 1975b, 1976, 1985, 1989). Brookhart & Muma (1981), Rowland & Reddell (1976) and Punzo (1998) for Eremobates, and Roewer ( 1952). Muma (1966a. 1966b. 1966c, 1967. 1974a, 1976, 1987). Rowland & Reddell ( 1976) and Punzo (1993, 1995. 1998) for Eremorhax. Therefore, in the interest of nomenclatural stability, I propose that the type designation for Eremobates Banks, 1900 made (under Article 67.8 of the Code) by Simon (1879b) be set aside, and that Galeodes pallipes Say, 1823 be confirmed as the type species following the designation by Roewer (1934). This will allow the accustomed usages of the names Eremobates and Eremorhax Roewer, 1934 to continue. Although preceded by type designations by Simon (1879b) and by Pocock (1902) and therefore invalid, Roewer's (1934) type designation was of a species originalJy included in Datames (= Eremobates) and it has been followed by subsequent authors.

14. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is accordingly asked:
  ...

 (1) to use its plenary power to set aside all previous fixations of type species for the
      following nominal genera:

    (b) Eremobates Banks, 1900 (= Datames Simon, 1879) prior to the designation by Roewer  (1934) of Galeodes pallipes Say, 1823;

 (2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the following names:

   ...

     (c) Eremobates Banks, 1900 (gender: masculine), type species by subsequent
       designation by Roewer (1934) Galeodes pallipes Say, 1823. as ruled in (1)(b) above;

     (d) Eremorhax Roewer. 1934 (gender: masculine), type species by monotypy Datames
       magna
Hancock, 1888;

 (3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the following names:

   ...

     (c) pallipes Say, 1823, as published in the binomen Galeodes pallipes and as defined
       by the neotype designated by Brookhart & Muma (1981) (specific name of the type
       species of Eremobates Banks. 1900);

     (d) magna Hancock, 1888, as published in the binomen Datames magna (specific name
       of the type species of Eremorhax Roewer. 1934);

  (4) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology the
       following names:

   ...

      (b) Datames Simon, 1879 (Solifugae) (a junior homonym of Datames Stål, 1875)."


Harvey, 2003e: 235:

235 - Genus Eremobates Banks

DatamesSimon, 1879a: 133-135 [junior homonym of Datames Stal, 1875 (Insecta: Orthoptera)]; Simon, 1879c: 78.

Eremobates Banks, 1900: 426 [replacement name for Datames Simon, 1879a]; Kraepelin, 1901: 117; Pocock, 1902c: 59; Comstock, 1913: 36; Pratt, 1927: 408; Roewer, 1934: 555; Pratt, 1935: 477; Muma, 1951: 51; Muma, 1970a: 10; Muma, 1976: 15; Muma, 1989: 6; Harvey, 2001: 198-199; Harvey 2003e: 235;

EremopernaRoewer, 1934: 557 (synonymised by Muma, 1951: 51).

EremospinaRoewer, 1934: 565 (synonymised through transfer of type species to Eremobates by Muma, 1970a: 29).

Eremognatha Roewer, 1934: 566 (synonymised by Muma, 1951: 51).

Eremoseta Roewer, 1934: 569 ( synonymised by Muma, 1970a: 21).

Eremostata Roewer, 1934: 571-572 (synonymised by Muma, 1951: 51). Type species: of Datames.

Type species: of Datames and Eremobates: Gluvia cinerascens C.L. Koch, 1842, by
subsequent designation of Pocock, 1902c: 59 [see Harvey, 2001: 198-199].

  of Eremoperna: Datames affinis Kraepelin, 1899a, by original designation.

  of Eremospina: Gluvia tolteca Pocock, 1895a, by original designation.

  of Eremognatha: Datames tuberculatus Kraepelin, 1899a, by original designation.

  of Eremoseta: Eremoseta titschacki Roewer, 1934, by original designation.

  of Eremostata: Gluvia cinerascens C.L. Koch, 1842, by original designation.

Distribution: North America.


Brookhart and Cushing, 2004: 284, 288:

284 - Muma (1951) redescribed the genus Eremobates Banks 1900 to include those solifugid species characterized by males with a basally dilated mesoventral groove running the length of the mesodorsal or mesoventral surface of the fixed finger. The male flagellum complex consists of dorsal striate setae, ventral striate setae, and a flattened apical plumose seta covering much of the mesoventral groove. The female genital opercula varied depending upon the species-group.

288 - "Genus Eremobates Banks 1900

    Datames Simon 1879:113 (preoccupied).
    Datames scaber Kraepelin 1899.
    Eremobates Banks 1900:426 (new name for Datames Simon).
    Eremoperna Roewer 1934:557 (in part).
    Eremopus Roewer 1934:561 (in part).
    Eremognatha Roewer 1934:566 (in part).
    Eremocosta Roewer 1934:569 (in part).
    Eremostata Roewer 1934:571 (in part).

Type species.Gluvia cinerascens E.L. Koch 1842 (junior synonym of Galeodes pallipes Say 1923). Muma (1951) described the genus Eremobates as small to medium sized Eremobatidae with a mesoventral groove that extends the entire length of the male fixed finger. The flagellum complex is composed of a dorsal row of simple tubular bristles that are sometimes striate and a ventral row of Sshaped, flattened, plumose bristles that form an arch over the basal third of the mesoventral groove. The apical, plumose bristle of the ventral row is straight and forms a parallel covering over the apical two-thirds of the mesoventral groove. The first post-spiracular abdominal sternite of males are with or without ctenidia. Genital operculum of female variable. This description did not change in later works (Muma 1962, 1970, 1989).Muma (1951) described the genus Eremobates as small to medium sized Eremobatidae with a mesoventral groove that extends the entire length of the male fixed finger. The flagellum complex is composed of a dorsal row of simple tubular bristles that are sometimes striate and a ventral row of S-shaped, flattened, plumose bristles that form an arch over the basal third of the mesoventral groove. The apical, plumose bristle of the ventral row is straight and forms a parallel covering over the apical two-thirds of the mesoventral groove. The first post-spiracular abdominal sternite of males are with or without ctenidia. Genital operculum of female variable. This description did not change in later works (Muma 1962, 1970, 1989)."


Brookhart and Brookhart 2006: 301 (key); 305

301 -    Key to Subfamilies and Genera of Eremobatidae (males only)

(Taken from Muma 1987)

1. Leg I with 1 claw; chelicerae about twice as long as wide; small to large species .....................
   .............................................................................................................Eremobatinae Roewer-2

   Leg 1 with 2 claws; chelicerae 2.5–3 times longer than wide; tiny to moderate sized species ...
   ........................................................................................................................... Therobatinae-6

2. Fixed cheliceral finger long, style-like or needle-like; mesoventral groove a crease, slot or
   cup-like structure; moderate-sized to large species ................................................................ 3

    Fixed cheliceral finger short, sculptured and flanged; mesoventral groove a trough-like slot;
   moderate sized species .......................................................................................... Eremothera

3. Mesoventral groove an indistinct hollow or crease that does not extend to the base of the
   fixed finger; anterior tooth absent .......................................................................... Eremorhax

    Mesoventral groove a distinct crease, cup, or slot that may or may not extend to base of
   fixed finger; anterior tooth present ......................................................................................... 4

4. Mesoventral groove short, not extending to base of fixed finger; apical striate or plumose
   setae of male flagellum complex not obviously modified or flattened ................................... 5

    Mesoventral groove long, extending to base of fixed finger; apical plumose seta of male
   flagellum complex obviously enlarged or flattened; covering part of the mesoventral groove
   ................................................................................................................................. Eremobates

5. Palpal metatarsus, tibia, and femur provided with enlarged spine-like seta, but not robust,
   not aligned in a ventral row, not movable .............................................................. Eremocosta

    Palpal metatarsus, tibia, and femur provided ventrally with robust, obviously movable
   spinelike setae .......................................................................................................... Horribates

6. Fixed cheliceral finger strongly recurved, sigmoid, or S-shaped; mesoventral groove absent;
    both dorsal and ventral flagellum complex setae plumose, moderate sized species ..............
   .....................................................................................................................................Chanbria

    Fixed cheliceral finger style-like or needle-like, straight, curved, or undulate but not
   S-shaped or sigmoid; mesoventral groove present; dorsal flagellum complex setae striate,
   ventral setae striate or plumose ............................................................................................. 7

7. Fixed cheliceral finger with a mesoventral groove that may vary from a distinct crease to
   an elongate hollow or cup; dorsal flagellum complex simple or tubular; small to moderate
   sized species ........................................................................................................... Eremochelis

   Fixed cheliceral finger without a mesoventral groove; dorsal flagellum complex hooked or
   spatulate; tiny to small species ........................................................................... Hemerotrecha

305 - Genus Eremobates Banks 1900

Datames Simon 1879:133.

Eremobates Banks 1900:426 (in part).

Eremoperna Roewer 1934:557 (in part).

Eremopus Roewer 1934:561 (in part).

Eremocosta Roewer 1934:561 (in part).

Eremospina Roewer 1934:565.

Eremognatha Roewer 1934:569 (in part).

Eremoseta Roewer 1934:569 (in part).

Eremostata Roewer 1934:571 (in part).


Cushing and Brookhart 2016: 508:

305 - Genus Eremobates Banks 1900

Datames Simon 1879:133 (preoccupied).

Eremobates Banks 1900:426 (new name for Datames Simon).

Eremoperna Roewer 1934:557 (in part).

Eremopus Roewer 1934:561 (in part).

Eremognatha Roewer 1934:569 (in part).

Eremocosta Roewer 1934:561 (in part).

Eremostata Roewer 1934:571 (in part).



Notes:

Muma (1951), in a key to the genera of the subfamily Eremobatinae, based on males, attributed the following features to Eremobates: fixed finger of chelicera style-like; mesoventral groove of fixed finger extending to base of finger; size small to moderate. Muma (1976) recognized the genus as a valid member of the family Eremobatidae, and included the genus in an annotated list of Western Hemisphere Solpugida. He reported at the time that, "Although 58 names have been applied to species of this large genus, only 36 are presently considered valid." Muma (1982) reported that Eremobates comprises both the greatest number of species and the greatest number of individuals, often representing over 40% of the solpugid population in an area. Muma (1989) attributed the following features to Eremobates in a key to the subfamilies and genera of the family Eremobatidae: leg 1 with one claw; chelicerae about twice as long as wide; size small to large ; fixed cheliceral finger long, style-like or needle-like; mesoventral groove distinct, extending to base of fixed finger; apical plumose seta of male flagellum complex obviously enlarged and flattened and covering part of mesoventral groove; some palpal setae enlarged and spine-like; movable finger dentition normal or increased, size moderate to large. Brookhart and Brookhart (2006) reproduced the Key to Subfamilies and Genera of Eremobatidae (males only) previously published by Muma (1989), adopting the diagnostic characters used to distinguish Eremobates.


Subordinate taxa:

Muma (1951) recognized four species groups within the genus Eremobates (the scaber, palpisetulosus, pallipes, and angustus groups), diagnosed them, and provided a key to them (based on males). Muma (1970) later recognized five species-groups, including all of the above, plus the monobasic aztecus group, which he erected and diagnosed for the first time to include Eremobates aztecus. He also provided an identification key, and listed 13 "nomina dubia" not assigned to species groups: Eremobates audax (Hirst), Eremobates californicus (Simon), Eremobates carolinianus (Krraepelin), Eremobates caspari (Marx), Eremobates constricta (Putnam), Eremobates dorsalis (Roewer), Eremobates elongatus (C. L. Koch), Eremobates hystrix (Mello-Leitão, Eremobates ingens Mello-Leitao, Eremobates praecox (C. L. Koch), Eremobates subulata (Girard), Eremobates sulfureus (Simon), and Eremobates tolteca (Pocock). Eremobates praecox (C. L. Koch), originally described as Gluvia praecox C. L. Koch 1842, had previously been treated as Biton praecox (C. L. Koch) by Roewer (1932), and was associated with Eremobates for the first time by Muma (1970). It was recently listed by Harvey (2003), in his Catalogue of the Smaller Arachnid Orders of the World, as Biton praecox (C.L. Koch). Muma included the same five species groups in his annotated list of Western Hemisphere Solpugida, along with 12 unplaced species (dropping Eremobates praecox (C. L. Koch) from his previous list). Muma (1986, 1987) added new species to the palpisetulosus and angustus groups, and established a new monbasic species group, the lapazi group, to accommodate the newly named Eremobates lapazi Muma from the cape region of Baja California, Mexico, bringing the total number of species groups to six. Muma (1989) established another monobasic species group, the vallis group, to accommodate a newly described species, Eremobates vallis Muma, from the southwestern United States. Thus, the currently recognized species groups of Eremobates are the scaber, aztecus, palpisetulosus, pallipes, angustus, lapazi, and vallis groups, for which Muma (1989) provided identification keys (one based on males, one on females). The monophyly of the groups has never been tested, and the relationships between the groups have not been established. Muma (1989) reported that in females of the palpisetulosus, aztecus, and vallis groups, the opercula are pitted and alate laterally, but variable in size and form. The fondal tooth formulae, he noted, are not valid for genus or group separation, as they are subject to wear, especially in females. Brookhart and Brookhart (2006) included six of the seven species groups in their Annotated Checklist of Continental North American Solifugae, omitting Eremobates vallis and the vallis group from the list without explanation. The current onstituency of the seven species groups is as follows:


Species Groups

Key to Males

1












2












3











4











5













6

Mesal groove of fixed cheliceral finger mesodorsal in position

aztecus species group


Mesal groove broad both basally and apically, occupying most of finger width

vallis species group


Mesal groove not dilated basally

angustus species group


Fixed cheliceral finger in dorsal view with a wide notch or offset

scaber species group


Fixed finger with an ectodorsal, ridge-like or tooth-like process near its base

palpisetulosus species group


Anterior tooth of movable cheliceral finger present and normal; small species

pallipes species group


Mesal groove of fixed cheliceral finger mesoventral in position

See couplet 2


Mesal groove narrow apically, occupying less than half of finger width

See couplet 3


Mesal groove distinctly dilated basally

See couplet 4


Fixed cheliceral finger in dorsal view straight or at most slightly sinuate

See couplet 5


Fixed finger constricted near base but without an ectodorsal tooth-like process

See couplet 6


Anterior tooth of movable cheliceral finger absent or abortive; large species

lapazi species group



Key to Females

1
















2
















3














4















5















6

Opercula widely separated posteriorly and/or slightly to distinctly lobate at posterio-ectal angles and with a pair of distinct pits midway along ectal margins

See couplet 2


Posteriomesal notch small and flat, occupying a minor portion of opercular area, pits shallow

vallis species group


Posteriomesal notch of opercula smoothly flared or arched mesally

palpisetulosus species group


Mesal margins of opercula lobate, bilobate or sinuate at or just anterior to posteriomesal notch.

scaber species group


Mesal margins of opercula divergent both anteriorly and posteriorly


angustus species group


Posterior mesal margins of opercula sinuate; posteriomesal notch narrow and slot-like

lapazi species group


Opercula not or only moderately separated posteriorly; broadly triangular in shape and without distinct pits midway along ectal margins (except for E. mimbrenus Muma)

See couplet 4


Posteriomesal notch wide and long, occupying at least a third of opercular area, pits deep

See couplet 3


Posteriomesal notch of opercula sinuate or weakly lobate mesally within the notch

aztecus species group


Mesal margins of opercula straight or evenly curved to the posteriomesal notch


See couplet 5


Mesal margins of opercula parallel anteriorly although variously notched posteriorly

See couplet 6


Posterior mesal margins of opercula straight or evenly curved; posteriomesal notch variable in form

pallipes species group


 


Included species




  • palpisetulosus group
  • Eremobates affinis (Kraepelin 1899)
  • Eremobates ajoanus Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates bajadae Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates bajaensis Muma 1986
  • Eremobates bantai Brookhart 1965
  • Eremobates bixleri Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates coahuilanus Muma 1986
  • Eremobates fagei (Roewer 1934)
  • Eremobates girardi (Putnam 1883)
  • Eremobates gracilidens Muma 1951
  • Eremobates guenini (Roewer 1934)
  • Eremobates hessei (Roewer 1934)
  • Eremobates hystrix (Mello-Leitao 1942)
  • Eremobates inkopaensis Brookhart & Cushing 2005
  • Eremobates inyoanus Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates kastoni Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates kiseri Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates kraepelini Muma 1951
  • Eremobates leechi Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates marathoni Muma 1951
  • Eremobates nanus Muma 1962
  • Eremobates nivis Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates nodularis Muma 1951
  • Eremobates norrisi Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates otavonae Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates pallidus Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates palpisetulosus Fichter 1941
  • Eremobates papillatus Muma 1970
  • Eremobates pimanus Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates polhemusi Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates purpusi (Roewer 1934)
  • Eremobates pyriflora Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates scopulatellus Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates scopulatus Muma 1951
  • Eremobates spissus Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates tejonus Chamberlin 1925
  • Eremobates texanus Muma & Brookhart 1988
  • Eremobates titschacki (Roewer 1934)
  • Eremobates tuberculatus (Kraepelin 1899)
  • Eremobates vicinus Muma 1963
  • Eremobates villosus Muma 1951
  • Eremobates williamsi Muma & Brookhart 1988

  • vallis group
  • Eremobates vallis Muma 1989



Bibliography: