Eremocosta spinipalpis (Muma 1970)

Eremocosta titania (Muma 1951)

Eremorhax titania Muma, 1951: 48–50, figs 34–38; Muma, 1963: 1; Muma, 1966c: 200, 201, 202,206, 207, 212; Muma, 1970a: 9; Muma, 1976: 15; Vázquez, 1981b: 80; Muma, 1987: 19; Lighton and Fielden, 1996: 348–356, figs 1–6; Vázquez Rojas, 1995: 30; Vázquez Rojas, 1996: 76.

Eremopus titania (Muma): Muma and Muma, 1988: 11–12; Muma, 1989: 5 (key), 8.

Eremocosta titania (Muma): Harvey, 2002: 451; Harvey, 2003: 246; Cushing, Graham, Prendini, and Brookhart 2015: 285, 286, 288, 289, Table 2, figs. 1-3

Eremocosta calexicensis (Muma): Cushing, Graham, Prendini, and Brookhart 2015: 285, 287-289, Table 2, figs. 2, 3 (misidentification).

 

Diagnosis:

...


Holotype:

Female holotype from Santa Rosalio, Lower California, México, coll. S. Diguet, Number 33–97 in Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.


Original description:

Kraepelin, 1899a: 243–244

""


Subsequent accounts:

 

Muma 1989: 5, 6:

Movable chelicera! finger without a process distal of anterior teeth, a fixed finger that is gradually enlarged basally, and an elliptical mesoventral, ventral, or ectoventral groove not distinctly enlarged basally....
Distinct groove of fixed chelicera! finger distal in position; minor teeth of movable chelicera! finger not on anterior margin of principal tooth....
Anterior tooth of movable chelicera! finger normal; palpi and legs dusky at union of femora and tibia at least ventrally on palpi and leg 4....
Groove of fixed chelicera! finger ectoventral in position; duskiness on palpi and legs restricted to ventral surfaces of femoral tibial segments:.................E. titania (Muma)


"A female collected by B. J. Kaston at Upper Tecate, California on April 21, 1968 is presently the southernmost record of this species in the United States. It seems to be relatively common in southern Nevada, and southern California."

Kraepelin, 1901: 124:

""

 

Roewer, 1934: 577:

""

 

Muma, 1970a: 8, fig. 7:

""

 

Muma 1976: 15:

""

 

Polis and McCormick, 1986: 112:

""

 

Muma, 1987: 19:

""

 

Vázquez Rojas 1995: 30:

""

 

Vázquez Rojas, 1996: 76:

""

 

Harvey 2002: 451:

Recognized Eremopus Roewer 1934 as a junior homonym of the copepod genus Eremopus Brady 1910, resurrected Eremocosta Roewer 1934, transferred Eremorhax titania Muma 1951 to Eremocosta.

 

Harvey, 2003: 246, 247:

"Eremocosta titania (Muma)

Eremorhax titania Muma, 1951: 48–50, figs 34–38; Muma, 1963: 1; Muma, 1966c: 200, 201, 202, 206, 207, 212; Muma, 1970a: 9; Muma, 1976: 15; Vázquez, 1981b: 80; Muma, 1987: 19; Lighton and Fielden, 1996: 348–356, figs 1–6; Vázquez Rojas, 1995: 30; Vázquez Rojas, 1996: 76.

Eremopus titania (Muma): Muma and Muma, 1988: 11–12; Muma, 1989: 5, 6.

Eremocosta titania: Harvey, 2002: 451.

Type locality: Twenty-nine Palms, San Bernardino County, California, U.S.A.

Distribution: Mexico, U.S.A. (California, Nevada)."

 

Brookhart and Brookhart 2006: 305:

"Eremocosta titania Muma 1951

Eremocosta titania Muma 1951:48.

Eremopus titania (Muma): Muma & Muma 1988: 11.

Eremocosta titania Muma: Harvey 2002: 451.

Type material.— Male holotype and 2 male paratypes from Twenty-nine Palms, California, USA (AMNH). Female allotype from 12 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, USA (AMNH).

Recorded specimens.— Numerous males and females.

Distribution.— USA: California and Nevada. Biome: Sonoran Desert; Mojave Desert."

 

Klann, 2009: 21, 25, 57, 60, Table 2.1.1, figs. 8A, 29A-D

"Eremocosta titania

Like in E. pallipes the tarsus of the first leg is covered with different types of setae and distally provided with a single claw (Fig. 29A). A clear arolium is not visible. Part 1 of the arolia of the walking legs is apparently reduced. In contrast to E. pallipes the distal pad (part 2) of the arolium of E. titania is more oval in shape and slightly elongated (Fig. 29B) and longitudinally, ventro-medially folded (Fig. 8B). Further on, the arolium possesses lateral folds on each side (Figs. 29B, C, D). The proximal pad is similar in shape like that one of E. pallipes (Fig. 29D). In E. titania,the arolium is also surrounded with solid spines, like in E. pallipes (Figs. 29B, D). The surface of the spines is smooth (Figs. 29C, D). "

 

Cushing, Graham, Prendini, and Brookhart 2015: 285-289, Table 2, figs. 1-3 (as E. calexicensis); 285, 286, 288, 289, Table 2, figs. 1-3 (as E. titania):

Cushing et al. included one specimen each of E. calexicensis (Muma) and E. titania (Muma) in a phylogenetic analysis utilizing fragements of the 16S, CO1, H3, and 28S genes.

Figures 2 and 3 depict E. calexicensis as the sister taxon to E. titania, with Figure 3 indicating minimal divergence.

Table 2 identifies the specimen of Eremocosta calexicensis (Muma, 1951) utilized in the analysis as having the following collection data: USA: California, San Bernardino Co., Twenty Nine Palms, 34.16500°, -115.90340° DMNS ZA.17223, and identifies the specimen of Eremocosta titania (Muma, 1951) utilized in the analysis as having the following collection data: USA: California, San Bernardino Co., Joshua Tree NP, 34.07711°, -116.03575°, DMNS ZA.23781

The GenBank accession numbers for the specimen identified as Eremocosta calexicensis are reported as: 16S: KT276622, CO1: KT276704, H3: KT276870, and 28S: KT276788; those reported for the specimen identified as Eremocosta titania are: 16S: KT276626, CO1: KT276708, H3: KT276874, and 28S: KT276792.

[NOTE: Cushing et al. (2018) note that "Upon re-examination of these specimens, it was clear that they both represented E. titania. ]

 

Bird, Wharton and Prendini 2015: 43, 125, 132, 167, 180, 184, 205, 233, 235, 268, 269,  Fig. 9E, Plates 11E, 37C, 39I, 72A-B, 73A-C

"...the setal flagellar complex (sfc) is formed by relatively undifferentiated setae, without a flagellum, in some Eremobatidae, e.g., Eremocosta titania (Muma, 1951) (pls. 37C, 39I)...."

Modified setae in the sfc may also include promedial (pm) setae, e.g., in Eremocosta titania (pls. 39I, 72A)...

Flagellum absent in some taxa,notably Lipophaginae (pl. 36A–C) and some Eremobatidae, e.g., Chanbria regalis Muma, 1951 and Eremocosta titania (Muma, 1951) (pls. 37, 39G–J).

[APPENDIX 1. GLOSSARY OF TERMINOLOGY] ventrodistal concavity: Oval, ventral to retroventral concavity on asetose area of fixed (dorsal)of some male Eremobatidae, e.g., Eremocosta titania (pls. 37C, 73B), Hemerotrecha banksi Brookhart and Cushing, 2008 (Brookhart and Cushing, 2008: 50, fig. 3). Historical Use: groove (Muma, 1951); mesal ventral groove (Brookhart and Cushing, 2008: 50, fig. 3).

[APPENDIX 2: MATERIAL EXAMINED] Eremocosta titania (Muma, 1951): U.S.A.: California: Imperial County: Ogilby Road, N of Hwy 8, 32°46.180′N 114°50.209′E, 74 m, D. Wood, 1♂ (DMNS ZA.16319). Inyo County: Death Valley National Park Saline Valley Dunes, just off Saline Valley Road, 36°45.188′N 117°51.795′W, 343 m, 4.ix.2005, L. Prendini and R. Mercurio, 1♂ (AMNH [LP 5035]). San Bernardino County: 29 Palms, 5 mi. NW Sunshine Peak, 34.700°N 116.479°W, 914 m, 17.v.2004, G. Pratt, C. Pierce, and Tilborg, 1♂ (DMNS ZA.16320).

 

Cushing, Channiago and Brookhart:

"Eremocosta titania (Muma 1951)

  Figs. 1G, 2W–Z, 3G, 4F, 5H

     Eremorhax titania Muma 1951: 48–50, figs. 34–38.

     Eremopus titania (Muma 1951): Muma & Muma 1988: 11–12.

     Eremocosta titania (Muma 1951): Harvey 2002: 451.

 

  Type material. Male holotype and 2 male paratypes from Twenty-nine Palms, California, USA (AMNH). Female allotype from 12 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, USA (AMNH). We were able to examine the male holotype and female allotype.

  Other specimens examined. Males (16). USA: California, Imperial County, Ogilby Rd. N. of Highway 8, N 32.77447°, W 114.83692°, 74 m elev., 2002, coll. Dustin A. Wood (DMNS ZA.16317); USA: California, Imperial County, Highway 534 (Ogilby Rd.) 3.7 mi S. junction Highway 78, N 33.03207°, W 114.90521°, 271 m elev., 22 May 2000, coll. Dustin A. Wood, collected at night while driving (DMNS ZA.16322); USA: California, Kern County, Dove Springs 1, N 35.4308°, W 118.0244°, 1017 m elev., March 2003, coll. USGS, pitfall trap (DMNS ZA.16315); USA: California, Kern County, Dove Springs 1, N 35.436°, W 118.0202°, 1081 m elev., June 2004, coll. USGS, pitfall trap (DMNS ZA.16316); USA: California, Kern County, Dove Springs 1, N 35.4378°, W 118.039°, 1057 m elev., June 2003, coll. USGS, pitfall trap (DMNS ZA.17170); USA: California, Riverside County, San Jacinto Mountains, Highway 74, Pinyon Pines Fire Station, N 33.88°, W 116.71°, 1219 m elev., 5 July 2005, coll. Wendell Icenogle, pavement near lighted building (DMNS ZA.17218); USA: California, San Bernardino County, 5 miles NW Sunshine Peak, 29 Palms Marine Base, N 34.678°, W 116.463°, 1007 m elev., 17 May 2004, coll. G. Pratt (DMNS ZA.15426); USA: California, San Bernardino County, 5 miles NW Sunshine Peak, 29 Palms Marine Base, N 34.678°, W 116.463°, 1007 m elev., 17 May 2004, coll. G. Pratt (DMNS ZA.16320); USA: California, San Bernardino County, Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, N 34.3033°, W 116.30°, 773 m elev., July 1999, coll. USGS (DMNS ZA.16327); USA: California, San Bernardino County, Joshua Tree National Park, N 33.90925°, W 115.85617°, 538 m elev., August 1999, coll. USGS, pitfall trap (DMNS ZA.19260); USA: Nevada, Nye County, N 36.661°, W 115.994°, 1158 m elev., 20 July 1965, coll. Martin H. Muma, on road (DMNS ZA.15427); USA: Nevada, Nye County, Mercury, N 36.65869°, W 115.99426°, 1149 m elev., 18 May 2010, coll. Paul Greger (DMNS ZA.26870); USA: Nevada, Nye County, Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Jackass Flats off Jackass Flats Rd., N 36.63619°, W 116.0756°, 878 m elev., 30 June-3 August 2011, coll. Paula E. Cushing, pitfall trap (DMNS ZA.26887); USA: Nevada, Nye County, Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Bldg #23-652, N 36.6569°, W 115.99426°, 1149 m elev., 18 May 2010, coll. Paul Greger, in building (DMNS ZA.26888); USA: California, Riverside County, Blythe, 21 June 1978 (UCD no number); USA: California, Riverside County, Blythe, 18 July 1980 (UCD no number).

  Females (17). USA: California, Imperial County, off California 78, 9 miles west of junction with California 86, N 33.13247°, W 115.98183°, 20 m elev., 7 September 2010, coll. Wendell Icenogle, on highway in car headlights (DMNS ZA.36259); USA: California: Inyo County, Saline Valley, May 1959, Sta. 63, coll. B. Banta (CAS Casent 9033224); USA: California: Inyo County, Saline Valley, 15 August 1989, coll. B. Banta (CAS Casent 9033229);U SA: Inyo County, Saline Valley, 15 July 1959, coll. S. B. Banta (CAS Casent 9033644); USA: California: Kern County, Yermo (east of Barstow), 19 May 1973, coll. F. Ennik (CAS Casent 9033652); USA: California, Riverside County, Coachella Valley/Sky Valley, near junction of Dillon and Aurora roads, N 33.90343°, W 116.35964°, 331 m elev., 18 May 2009, coll. John Rajoa, inside building (DMNS ZA.36256); USA: California, Riverside County, east side of Palm Springs International Airport, on East Tachevah Dr., 1/10 mile west of California 111, N 33.83768°, W 116.5089°, 122 m elev., 2 September 2006, coll. Wendell Icenogle, on pavement near building with lights, 00:30 hr (DMNS ZA.36268); USA: California, Riverside County, Headquarters Salton Sea State Recreation Area, N 33.51062°, W 115.91995°, -64 m elev., 9 September 2004, coll. Wendell Icenogle, on concrete base of flood light feeding on insect at 24:00 hr (DMNS ZA.36900); USA: California, San Bernardino County, Amboy Rd. 8.5 miles east of 29 Palms (Adobe Rd.), N 34.15°, W 115.90°, 1600 m elev., 4 July 2010, coll. Wendell Icenogle, on pavement beside outbuilding with light (DMNS ZA.36270); USA: California, San Diego County, Ocotillo Wells ranger station, north of California 78, N 33.15354°, W 116.16731°, 47 m elev., 7 June 2008, coll. Wendell Icenogle, on ground near lights (DMNS ZA.36260); USA: California, San Diego County, 1.5 miles south of center of Borrego Springs, N 33.2384°, W 116.3759°, 183 m elev., 8 October 2012, coll. Wendell Icenogle, crawling slowly across road (DMNS ZA. 36269); USA: Nevada, Clark County, Las Vegas, 15 July 1987, coll. B. DePew (CAS Casent 9033514); USA: Nevada, Clark County, Kyle Canyon Rd., Spring Mountains, 16 July 1979, coll. L. DeLuca (CAS Casent 9033517); USA: Nevada, Clark County, Las Vegas, 9 June 1986, coll. R. Ramsay (CAS Casent 9033520); USA: Nevada, Clark County, Las Vegas, 1 August 1985, coll. E. Hamilton (CAS Casent 90335); USA: Nevada, Lyon County, Silver Springs, 17 July1963, coll. L. Warren (CAS Casent 9033516); USA: Nevada, Nye County, Rock Valley, N 36.633°, W 116.313°, 853 m elev., 22 July 1965, coll. Martin H. Muma, kept alive until 3 August 1965 (DMNS ZA.15429).

  Diagnosis. Eremocosta titania is related to E. calexicensis but differs in coloration, especially of appendages; fixed finger longer and narrower than E. calexicensis, MP of movable finger more robust as well (compare Figs. 2W & X with Figs. 2E & F). Male E. titania are also generally smaller than male E. calexicensis. Female genital operculum club-shaped with long arms; distinct from operculum of E. titania. See also diagnosis above under E. calexicensis.

  Measurements. Males (n = 16). TL 24.0–33.5; CL 7.1–10.4; CH 3.0–6.2; FNL 0.3–0.5; FNH 0.4–0.7; FFH 0.6–0.9; PL 20.0–35.0; PT 1.0–4.1; PMT 5.1–10.0; LI 12.0–25.0; LIV 24.0–33.0; PPL 4.0–5.4; A/CP 4.1–7.8; FNL/FNH 0.5–1.0; FFH/FNH 1.0–2.0; FFH/CH 0.1–0.3.

  Females (n = 17). TL 27.0–48.0; CL 8.6–13.9; CH 4.0–5.9; PL 20.0–37.0; PT 1.7–2.0; PMT 4.6–6.9; LI 12.0–24.5; LIV 25.5–41.0; PPL 3.9–6.4; A/CP 4.5–6.3.

  Description. Coloration. Male. Overall light yellow; appendages a bit darker with distal ends of femur and proximal ends of tibia a light purple-violet. Anterior margin of propeltidium dusky violet (Fig. 5H).

  Chelicera. Male. Deep VDC, similar to E. calexicensis but with slightly mesal orientation (Fig. 1G). Fixed finger slightly thicker than E. calexicensis, with no median dentition. Movable finger: MP-2 MSM-MM; distinct MPL (Figs. 2W & X). Fondal notch tiny with one RFA and two-three RFA on the ventral region of fixed finger; fondal teeth graded I, III, II, IV retrolaterally; I, II, III, IV prolaterally (Fig. 3G).

  Setation. Male. Typical setation. L III, LIV with bacilli on anterior edge of coxa.

  Coloration. Female. Overall slightly lighter than the male. Appendages the same as male.

  Chelicera. Female. Fixed finger: FP-1 FSM-FM-FSD-FD. Movable finger: MP-2 MSM, proximal larger-MM; distinct MPL (Figs. 2Y & Z). One large RFA; fondal teeth graded II, I, III, IV retrolaterally, and I, II, tiny III, serrate IV prolaterally.

  Setation. Female. Typical female cheliceral setation.

  Genital operculum. Muma’s illustration is accurate (1951, fig. 43). Club-shaped with long arms ending in oval shaped wings (Fig. 4F).

  Distribution. USA California and Nevada. Eremocosta titania ranges from the northern Mojave Desert to the Sonoran Desert west of the Colorado River. It is sympatric in part of its range with the closely related E. calexicensis.

  Discussion. Specimens from the more northern regions, Nevada, Northern California have a darker coloration than those found in regions of Southern California but male cheliceral dentition and female genital operculum remains relatively constant.


Distribution:

UNITED STATES: California, Nevada.


 


Notes:

-

Bibliography:


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