Eremocosta gigasella (Muma 1970)

Eremocosta gigasella (Muma 1970)

Eremorhax gigas (Roewer 1934): Muma 1951 (misidentification): 48, figs. 32–33.

Eremorhax gigasellus Muma 1970: 8.

Eremopus gigasellus (Muma 1989): 5.

Eremocosta gigasella (Muma 1970): Harvey 2002: 451; Harvey 2003: 246; Cushing, Graham, Prendini, and Brookhart 2015: 285, 286, 288, 289, Table 2, figs. 1-3

 

Diagnosis:

...


Holotype:

Male holotype from Boquillas, Texas, USA, 7 June 1948, coll. C. and P. Vaurie (AMNH)


Original description:

Muma, 1951: 46, 48, figs. 32–33. [as Eremorhax gigas (Roewer)] (misidentification)

    • "1. Movable finger with a process distad of anterior tooth, mesoventral groove enlarged
    •    basally..............................................................................................................................2
    •   2. Anterior tooth of movable finger distinct, process irregular, fondal notch obscure
    •    .................................................................................................Eremorhax gigas (Roewer)

"Eremorhax gigas (Roewer)

   Figures 32, 33.

   Eremocosta gigas ROEWER, 1934, in Bronn, Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs, vol. 5, div. 4, book 4, p. 569, fig. 127 (male only).

   MALES: Total length, 34.0 to 36.0 mm.

  Length Width
Chelicerae 8.8-8.9 mm. 4.2-4.3 mm.
Propeltidium 4.8-4.9 7.4-7.8
Palpi 33.0-34.0 -
Leg 1 27.0-27.0 -
Leg 4 41.0-42.0 -

   Coloration in alcohol and markings similar to those of striatus (Putnam).

   Dentition similar to that of striatus except that the anterior tooth of the movable finger is large and distinct, the distal process of the movable finger is irregular and not tooth-like, and the fondal notch is indistinct and less than half the width of the fixed finger at the base.

   Groove of fixed finger is almost ventral in position rather than mesoventral as in striatus. Flagellar area spatulate and occupying less than half of finger width.

   Structure otherwise nearly identical with that of striatus.

   TYPE LOCALITY: Male type of Eremocosta gigas Roewer, No. 3044/82, from Tampico, Mexico, in the Frankfurt Museum.

   RECORDS: New Mexico: Carlsbad, June 10, 1940, one male (E. S. Deevey), July, 1901, one male (Vernon Bailey). Texas: 9 miles of Alpine, Brewster County, June 2, 1941, one male (S. and D. Mulaik); Boquillas, June 7, 1948, one male (C. and P. Vaurie).

   REMARKS: This species is closely related to striatus (Putnam). The female is unknown.


Subsequent accounts:

Muma 1970: 245 (as Eremorhax gigasellus Muma):

"Eremorhax gigasellus, new name

    Eremorhax gigas (Roewer), sensu Muma, 1951, p. 48 (not E. gigas Roewer).

    DIAGNOSIS . This species is readily distinguished from E. gigas and E. striatus by the rounded, serrated distal process of the male cheliceral movable finger, the ventral position of the apical groove of the male cheliceral fixed finger, and the dusky purplish femora] and tibial markings on the legs and palpi.

  This species is adequately described by Muma (1951) as E. gigas (Roewer).

  TYPE LOCALITY: Male holotype from Boquillas, Texas, on June 7, 1948, by C. and P. Vaurie, in AMNH.

    The species is adequately described by Muma (1951).

    DISTRIBUTION: USA: New Mexico, Texas.

  DISCUSSION: This is not the species described as E. gigas by Roewer (1934), but is closely related.

   

Muma 1986: 3, 19 (as Eremorhax gigasellus Muma):

"Eremorhax gigasellus Muma

   Eremorhax gigas, Muma, 1951, p. 48, (not Eremocosta gigas, Roewer).

   Eremorhax gigasellus Muma, 1970, p. 8.

      Four males of this large species were collected in the state of Coahuila, Mexico,

   July 1, 1968 by Walters and Turner. This is the third record of this species outside of

   southwestern Texas and southeastern New Mexico."

   "E. gigasellus Muma, 1970; Vazquez (1981) recorded specimens from Coahuila and

   southern Veracruz."

   

Muma 1987: 3, 19 (as Eremorhax gigasellus Muma):

"Eremorhax gigasellus Muma

   Eremorhax gigas, Muma, 1951, p. 48, (not Eremocosta gigas, Roewer).

   Eremorhax gigasellus Muma, 1970, p. 8.

      Four males of this large species were collected in the state of Coahuila, Mexico,

   July 1, 1968 by Walters and Turner. This is the third record of this species outside of

   southwestern Texas and southeastern New Mexico."

   "E. gigasellus Muma, 1970; Vazquez (1981) recorded specimens from Coahuila and

    southern Veracruz."

   

Muma 1989: 5,6 (key) (as Eremopus gigasellus Muma):

1.Movable cheliceral finger with a process distal of anterior teeth, a fixed finger that is greatly enlarged basally, and a mesoventral groove distinctly enlarged basally...............2

2.' Distal process of movable finger, short, high, and not tooth-like; palpi and legs both pale or with dusky segmental unions.................................................................................3

3.' Process rounded and serrate; palpi dusky on tarsi and union with metatarsi, and femoral tibial union, legs 3 and 4 dusky at femoral tibial union..........E. gigasellus (Muma)


 

Harvey 2002: 451:

Recognized Eremopus Roewer 1934 as a junior homonym of the copepod genus Eremopus Brady 1910, resurrected Eremocosta Roewer 1934, transferred Eremorhax gigasellus Muma 1970 to Eremocosta.

 

Harvey 2003: 246:

"Eremocosta gigasella (Muma)

  Eremorhax gigas (Roewer): Muma, 1951: 48, figs32–33 (misidentification).

  Eremorhax gigasellus Muma, 1970a: 8; Muma, 1974c: 13; Muma, 1976: 14; Rowland and Reddell, 1976: 7; Muma, 1986: 3; Muma, 1987: 3, 19; Vázquez Rojas, 1995: 30; Vázquez Rojas, 1996: 76.

Eremopus gigasellus (Muma): Muma and Muma, 1988: 11; Muma, 1989: 5.

  Eremocosta gigasella (Muma): Harvey, 2002: 451.

  Type locality: Boquillas (probably Boquillas Crossing), Brewster County, Texas, U.S.A.

  Distribution: Mexico, U.S.A. (New Mexico, Texas).".


Sensenig and Shultz 2004: 2, 5-9, figs 3, 4, 16-22:

Quantifies the extension torque contributed by elastic recoil and hydraulic pressure in the patella–tibia and tibia-tarsus joints of Eremocosta gigasella (Muma).

 

Brookhart & Brookhart 2006: 304:

Eremocosta gigasella (Muma 1970)

"Eremorhax gigas (Roewer): Muma 1951:48 (misidentification).

  Eremorhax gigasellus Muma 1970: 8.

  Eremorhax gigasellus Muma 1970: 8.

  Eremopus gigasellus (Muma): Muma & Muma 1988: 11.

  Eremocosta gigasella (Muma): Harvey 2002: 451.

  Type material.— Male holotype from Boquillas, Texas, USA (AMNH).

  Recorded specimens.— Eight males and three females (DMNH).

  Distribution.— USA: New Mexico, Texas and probably Mexico. Biome: Chihuhuan Desert.

 

Bird, Wharton, and Prendini 2015: 184, 207, 268, 269, Plates 13C, 72C-D, 73D:

"[APPENDIX 2. MATERIAL EXAMINED.] Eremocosta gigasella (Muma, 1970): U.S.A.: New Mexico: Socorro County: Sevilleta Long Term Ecological Research Center, 34°21′10.8″N 106°52′55.2″W, 1478 m, 26.vii.1993, 1♀ (DMNS ZA.17350)."

 


Cushing, Graham, Prendini, and Brookhart 2015: 285, 286, 288, 289, Table 2, figs. 1-3:

Cushing et al. included E. gigasella in a phylogenetic analysis utilizing fragements of the 16S, CO1, H3, and 28S genes.

Figures 2 and 3 depict E. gigasella as the sister taxon to E. striata, with divergence estimated to be in the upper Miocene.

Table 2 reports the locality data for the specimen as USA: Texas, Brewster Co., Big Bend NP, 29.19288°, -102.94700° DMNS ZA.22143

The GenBank accession numbers for the specimen are identified as: 16S: KT276623; CO1: KT276705; H3: KT276871; 28S: KT276789.


Cushing, Channiago and Brookhart, 2018: 447, 448, 451-455, Figs. 1B, 2E–H, 3B, 4B, 5B

"Eremocosta gigasella (Muma 1970)

Figs. 1E, 2O–R, 3E, 4D, 5F

Eremorhax gigas (Roewer 1934): Muma 1951 (misidentification): 48, figs. 32–33.

Eremorhax gigasella Muma 1970: 8.

Eremopus gigasella (Muma 1989): 5.

Eremocosta gigasella (Muma 1970): Harvey 2002: 451.

Type material. Male holotype from Boquillas, Texas, USA, 7 June 1948, coll. C. and P. Vaurie (AMNH). We were able to examine the type.

Other specimens examined. Males (8). MÉXICO: Coahuila, Sierra San Marcos II, Cuatro Ciénegas, N 26.91326°, W 102.13757°, 761 m elev., no date, coll. E. González-S., B. Hendrixson, K. McWest, S. Grant, collected with UV. light (IBUNAM +CNAN-Sol100007); MÉXICO: Coahuila, Saltillo, 27 May 1967, coll. M. Oyervides, no other data (IBUNAM +CNAN-Sol00204); USA: New Mexico, Eddy County, Carlsbad, N 32.45°, W 104.30°, 1012 m elev., 10 June 1940, coll. E.S. Deevey, on tent (DMNS ZA.17982); USA: Texas, Brewster County, Big Bend National Park, south of Camp De Leon turn-off, east side of Old Ore Rd., N 29.245°, W 103.01167°, 696 m elev., 11 June–8 July 2011, coll. David Footle, pitfall trap (3 males: DMNS ZA.35465); USA: Texas, Brewster County, Big Bend National Park, east of Terlingua Abajo Village sign, N 29.1975°, W 103.60194°, 673 m elev., 11 June –8 July 2011, coll. David Footle, pitfall trap in sandy flood plain behind Acacia thicket (2 males: DMNS ZA.35475).

Females (7). MÉXICO: Coahuila, Sierra San Marcos II, Cuatro Ciénegas, N 26.91326°, W 102.13757°, no date, coll. E. González-S., B. Hendrixson, K. McWest, S. Grant, collected with UV light; (2 females: IBUNAM +CNAN-Sol100007; USA: Texas, Brewster County, Big Bend National Park, south of Camp De Leon turn-off, east side of Old Ore Rd., N 29.245°, W 103.01167°, 696 m elev., 11 June–8 July 2011, coll. David Footle, pitfall trap (3 females: DMNS ZA.35465); USA: Texas, Brewster County, Big Bend National Park, east of Terlingua Abajo Village sign, N 29.1975°, W 103.60194°, 673 m elev., 11 June–8 July 2011, coll. David Footle, pitfall trap in sandy flood plain behind Acacia thicket (2 females: DMNS ZA.35475).

Diagnosis. Eremocosta gigasella is distinguished by the lack of a fondal notch on the male fixed finger (Figs. 2O & P). All other species in the genus have a moderate fondal notch to distinct fondal notch. On the male fixed finger, the relatively flattened MM is also distinctive as well as the presence of an apparent MD or a tooth-like structure at the distal location of the movable finger (Fig. 20, arrow). The female genital operculum is similar to that of E. titania; however, the two species can be easily distinguished with the posterior part of arms of E. gigasella more rounded and the inner edge slightly hooked (compare Figs. 4D & F).

Measurements. Males (n = 8). TL 28.0–42.0; CL 9.5–14.0; CH 4.0–6.0; FNL NA; FNH 0.5; FFH 1.0–1.3; PL 29.5–40.5; PT 1.7–4.0; PMT 5.4–9.0; PT 3.0–4.5; LI 20.0–28.0; LIV 33.0–43.0; PPL 35.0–43.0; A/CP 4.7–5.5; FNL/FNH NA; FFH/FNH NA; FFH/CH 0.2–0.3.

Females (n = 7). TL 39.0–50.0; CL 10.7–16.0; CH 4.3–6.0; PL 29.0–35.0; PT 1.7–3.5; PMT 7.0–7.9; LI 20.5–30.0; LIV 31.0–45.0; A/CP 4.6–5.0.

Description. Coloration. Male. Palpal tarsus, metatarsus faintly dusky violet-brown; LI , LII pale; LIII, LIV dusky violet-brown at the tibia-femur joint. Propeltidium mottled brownish violet anteriorly with a large pale yellow oval behind ocular tubercle, two smaller pale yellow ovals on either side of ocular tubercle (Fig. 5F). Abdomen dark dorsally, greyish ventrally.

Chelicera. Male. VDC occupies approximately half the length of fixed finger; deep, with a thin carina on the interior extending half the length of the cavity (Fig. 1E, arrow). Fixed finger broad proximally, sinuate dorsally with no median dentition. Movable finger: large MP-2 MSM the proximal larger-MM a long ridge with notch in the middle; MD also a ridge; MPL distinct (Figs. 2O & P). Fondal notch indistinct. Two distinct RFA in the notch and two tiny RFA on ventral edge of fixed finger; fondal teeth graded retrolaterally I & II (equal), III, tiny IV; prolaterally I, III, IV, tiny IV (Fig. 3E).

Setation. Male. Apical setal complex flat and plumose. No ventral series. Inner medial setal complex plumose setae to the top of fondal notch; mpd extend to the front of MM. This is the only Eremocosta that has a linear mpd as opposed to patchy configuration. Pedipalps with scattered long thin setae. No ctenidia. No palpal papillae. Scattered bacilli on anterior part of coxa of Leg 3.

Coloration. Female. Basically cream-yellow, legs similar but a bit darker. Palp dusky on tarsus and metatarsus, LIV light violet-brown at tibia-femur joint; propeltidium blotchy violet-brown, darker on anterior edge, creamy oval behind ocular tubercle and smaller ovals on either side. Abdomen with typical dark, violet brown rectangles on each segment that give the appearance of a stripe; ventral grey-cream.

Chelicera. Female. Fixed finger: FP-2 FSM-FM-FSD-FD. Movable finger: MP-2 MSM–MM; large MPL (Figs. 2Q & R). One large RFA; fondal teeth I, III, II, IV (III almost the same size as I) retrolaterally and prolaterally.

Setation. Female. Inner row of plumose bristle typical, extend from FD on fixed finger to MD on movable finger. A row of thick bacilli on anterior edge of LIII coxa and a row of smaller bacilli on edge LIV coxa.

Genital Operculum. Genital operculum club shaped with slender anterior arms, posterior rounded with inner edge slightly hooked posteriorly. No visible pits laterally. Genital operculum not as in fig. 31 in Muma (1951). More like E. titania fig. 38 in Muma (1951) but with wider, shorter anterior arms and larger more rounded club shape posteriorly (Fig. 4D).

Distribution. USA: New Mexico, Texas and México. Biome: Chihuahuan Desert.

Discussion. This species was described by Muma (1951) as E. gigas. This species is a Chihuahuan Desert inhabitant extending from New Mexico (Brookhart & Brantley 2000) into the Big Bend region of Texas and south into the Mexican states of Chihuahua, and Coahuila. The collection of this species by David Footle (personal comm.) from 20 pitfall arrays in Big Bend National Park resulted in 24 males, 24 females from April to August. They were collected in 5 of the 20 arrays set up by the collector in the park. Brookhart & Brantley (2000) identified this species as far north and west as Socorro, New Mexico, USA.


Distribution:

UNITED STATES: Arizona, California. MEXICO: Sonora.

 


Notes:

Partial sequences of the histone H3 (H3) gene [Accession KT276870.1], the 16S ribosomal RNA gene [Accession KT276622.1], the 28s ribosomal RNA gene [Accession KT276788.1], and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene [Accession: KT276704.1] are available in GenBank .


Bibliography: